PHILOSOPHERS

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15 thinkers

1 / 15   Antonio Gramsci


Antonio Francesco Gramsci (1891-1937) was an Italian Marxist philosopher, journalist, linguist, writer, and politician. He wrote on philosophy, political theory, sociology, history, and linguistics per Wikipedia entry.
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2 / 15   Arthur Schopenhauer


Arthur Schopenhauer (22-Feb-1788 to 21-Sept-1860) was a German philosopher. He is best known for his 1818 work The World as Will and Representation (expanded in 1844), which characterizes the phenomenal world as the product of a blind noumenal will. Building on the transcendental idealism of Immanuel Kant, Schopenhauer developed an atheistic metaphysical and ethical system that rejected the contemporaneous ideas of German idealism. He was among the first thinkers in Western philosophy to share and affirm significant tenets of Indian philosophy, such as asceticism, denial of the self, and the notion of the world-as-appearance. His work has been described as an exemplary manifestation of philosophical pessimism.

Arthur Schopenhauer Wikipedia

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3 / 15   Confucius


Confucius (551 to 479 BCE) was a Chinese philosopher and politician of the Spring and Autumn period who was traditionally considered the paragon of Chinese sages. Widely considered one of the most important and influential individuals in Chinese history, Confucius's teachings and philosophy formed the basis of much of East Asian culture and society, and continue to remain influential across China and East Asia today. His philosophical teachings, called Confucianism, emphasised personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice, kindness, and sincerity.

Confucius Wikipedia

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4 / 15   Daniel Dennett


Daniel Dennett (born 28-Mar-1942) is an American philosopher, writer, and cognitive scientist whose research centers on the philosophy of mind, philosophy of science, and philosophy of biology, particularly as those fields relate to evolutionary biology and cognitive science.

Daniel Dennett Wikipedia

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5 / 15   David Hume


David Hume (7-May-1711 to 25-Aug-1776) was a Scottish Enlightenment philosopher, historian, economist, librarian and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism. Beginning with A Treatise of Human Nature (1739–40), Hume strove to create a naturalistic science of man that examined the psychological basis of human nature. Hume argued against the existence of innate ideas, positing that all human knowledge derives solely from experience. This places him with Francis Bacon, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and George Berkeley as a British Empiricist.

David Hume Wikipedia

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6 / 15   Eckhart Tolle


Eckhart Tolle (born 16-Feb-1948) is a German-born pragma-philosopher, spiritual teacher and self-help author who resides in Canada. He is best known as the author of The Power of Now and A New Earth: Awakening to Your Life's Purpose.

Eckhart Tolle Wikipedia

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7 / 15   Edmund Burke


Edmund Burke (12-Jan-1729 to 9-Jul-1797) was a Irish statesman, economist, and philosopher. Born in Dublin, Burke served as a member of parliament (MP) between 1766 and 1794 in the House of Commons of Great Britain with the Whig Party after moving to London in 1750. Burke was a proponent of underpinning virtues with manners in society and of the importance of religious institutions for the moral stability and good of the state.[3] These views were expressed in his A Vindication of Natural Society. He criticised the actions of the British government towards the American colonies, including its taxation policies. Burke also supported the rights of the colonists to resist metropolitan authority, although he opposed the attempt to achieve independence. He is remembered for his support for Catholic emancipation, the impeachment of Warren Hastings from the East India Company, and his staunch opposition to the French Revolution.

Edmund Burke Wikipedia

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8 / 15   Immanuel Kant


Immanuel Kant (22-Apr-1724 to 12-Feb-1804) was a German philosopher and one of the central Enlightenment thinkers. Kant's comprehensive and systematic works in epistemology, metaphysics, ethics, and aesthetics have made him one of the most influential figures in modern Western philosophy. In his doctrine of transcendental idealism, Kant argued that space and time are mere forms of intuition which structure all experience, and therefore that while things-in-themselves exist and contribute to experience, they are nonetheless distinct from the objects of experience. From this it follows that the objects of experience are mere appearances, and that the nature of things as they are in themselves is consequently unknowable to us. In an attempt to counter the skepticism he found in the writings of philosopher David Hume, he wrote the Critique of Pure Reason (1781/1787), one of his most well-known works. In it, he developed his theory of experience to answer the question of whether synthetic a priori knowledge is possible, which would in turn make it possible to determine the limits of metaphysical inquiry. Kant drew a parallel to the Copernican revolution in his proposal that the objects of the senses must conform to our spatial and temporal forms of intuition, and that we can consequently have a priori cognition of the objects of the senses.

Immanuel Kant Wikipedia

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9 / 15   Jean-Paul Sartre


Jean-Paul Sartre (21-Jun-1905 to 15-Apr-1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, screenwriter, political activist, biographer, and literary critic. He was one of the key figures in the philosophy of existentialism and phenomenology, and one of the leading figures in 20th-century French philosophy and Marxism.

Jean-Paul Sartre Wikipedia

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10 / 15   Karl Popper


Karl Popper (28-Jul-1904 to 17-Sept-1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher, academic and social commentator. One of the 20th century's most influential philosophers of science, Popper is known for his rejection of the classical inductivist views on the scientific method in favour of empirical falsification. According to Popper, a theory in the empirical sciences can never be proven, but it can be falsified, meaning that it can (and should) be scrutinised with decisive experiments. Popper was opposed to the classical justificationist account of knowledge, which he replaced with critical rationalism, namely the first non-justificational philosophy of criticism in the history of philosophy. In political discourse, he is known for his vigorous defence of liberal democracy and the principles of social criticism that he believed made a flourishing open society possible. His political philosophy embraced ideas from major democratic political ideologies, including socialism/social democracy, libertarianism/classical liberalism and conservatism, and attempted to reconcile them.

Karl Popper Wikipedia

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11 / 15   Nick Bostrum


Swedish-born philosopher Nick Bostrom (10-Mar-1973) is an academic at the University of Oxford known for his work on existential risk, the anthropic principle, human enhancement ethics, superintelligence risks, and the reversal test. See nickbostrum.com home page.

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12 / 15   René Girard


René Girard (1923—2015) was a mainstream French philosopher whose areas of thought defy classification, spanning a wide variety of typically delimited humanities disciplines: Literary Criticism, Psychology, Anthropology, Sociology, History, Biblical Hermeneutics and Theology. Although he rarely calls himself a philosopher, many philosophical implications can be derived from his work. Girard’s work is above all concerned with Philosophical Anthropology (that is, ‘What is it to be human?’), and draws from many disciplinary perspectives. Over the years Girard developed a mimetic theory: human beings imitate each other, and this eventually gives rise to rivalries and violent conflicts. Such conflicts give rise to the scapegoat mechanism. Violence often follows. Girard's solution - like many French bourgeois - is ultimately, Christianity in the Des Essientes Catholic ideal. Girard’s lack of specific disciplinary affiliation slightly marginalises his work among contemporary academics. He's not regarded as part of the French philosophical pantheon like Derrida, Foucault, Deleuze, Lyotard, but his religiosity makes his work palatable to Christians and theologians ensuring a certain popularity in the lexicon of educated conservative discourse.
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13 / 15   Sam Harris


American philosopher, neuroscientist, author, and podcast host Sam Harris (9-Apr-1967) work touches on a wide range of topics, including rationality, religion, ethics, free will, neuroscience, meditation, psychedelics, philosophy of mind, politics, terrorism, and artificial intelligence. Harris publishes the Waking Up app and hosts the Making Sense podcast.

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14 / 15   Simone de Beauvoir


Simone de Beauvoir (9-Jan-1908 to 14-Apr-1986) was a French writer, intellectual, existentialist philosopher, political activist, feminist, and social theorist. Though she did not consider herself a philosopher, and even though she was not considered one at the time of her death,[5] she had a significant influence on both feminist existentialism and feminist theory.

Simone de Beauvoir Wikipedia

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15 / 15   Thomas Paine


Thomas Paine (9-Feb-1737 to 8-Jun-1809) was an English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorist, and revolutionary. He authored Common Sense (1776) and The American Crisis (1776–1783), the two most influential pamphlets at the start of the American Revolution, and helped inspire the colonists in 1776 to declare independence from Great Britain. His ideas reflected Enlightenment-era ideals of transnational human rights.

Thomas Paine Wikipedia

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