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“Then there was the educated Texan from Texas who looked like someone in Technicolor and felt, patriotically, that people of means – decent folk – should be given more votes than drifters, whores, criminals, degenerates, atheists and indecent folk – people without means.”Joseph Heller

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There are currently 42 entries in this directory beginning with the letter N.

National Education Spending
Bioinformatics - the intersection of two distinct fundamentals of science. 

  • In the mathematical sciences once you have a proof it should stand forever. The numbers of variables involved are under your control.
  • In the biological sciences once you demonstrate something you are only starting. Other experiments in different settings may support prior results or may have different results. The number of variables involved is nearly unbounded. And not all of them are visible or measurable. And they are all interdependent.
  • Example: you have this great result, say gene G affects disease D. But it does so only only 40% of the time. With more work, adding more variables, you can increase the success ratio. But how do you get the uncertainty down to zero? No easy answer.


  • Why not let funding follow the child, e.g. homeschooling or private?
  • What happens to the government money that would've gone to schools had the child been put into state/public education?
  • OECD: Education Spending


  • starts at age 5 - kindergarten
  • $13000-$15000 public school
  • $21,000 - $33,000 tertiary
  • $45000 private school day
  • $60000 private school boarding


  • starts at age 4
  • £5600 elementary / £6500 secondary
  • $11500 average total
  •  free meals if your poor
  • £9500 tertiary
  • £35000 private day
  • £45000 private boarding

    Italy, Portugal, Ireland

  • $8000-$9000 on average
  • elementary + secondary
  • free meals + free books

    France, Finland, Japan

  • $10000 average
  • free meals
  • (Finland all public school teachers need five year Masters minimum)
  • starts with day care funding, age 3 (optional) then compulsory from age 4 - to educate not necessary to send to school

    Holland, Germany, Canada

  • $11000 average
  • South Korea, Sweden, Iceland

  • $12000 average
  • Norway, Austria

  • $15000 average
  • Switzerland

  • $18000 average elementary/secondary
  • Luxembourg

  • $20000 average elementary/secondary

  • Nature: Indian Ghost Pipe

    Indian Ghost Pipe also known as Indian Ghost Pipe, wildflower is rare, mystical and appears above ground just one week each year.

    Neuroscience: Lateralization In Vertebrate Brains
    Lateralization in vertebrates: Its early evolution, general pattern, and development @ LINK to article in sciencedirect journal.

    Neuroscience: Lateralization of Language in Brains
    From Acoustic Segmentation to Language Processing: Evidence from Optical Imaging @ LINK article published at researchgate website.

    Neuroscience: Lateralization Architecture Human Callosal Connectivity
    The architecture of functional lateralisation and its relationship to callosal connectivity in the human brain @ LINK to article published in nature.com journal.

    Neuroscience: Handedness in Healthy Humans Brains
    Handedness and hemispheric language dominance in healthy humans @ LINK to article published by Oxford University Press.

    Neuroscience: Standardized Neuro-Psychomotor Assessment
    Laterality and Lateralization in Autism Spectrum Disorder, Using a Standardized Neuro-Psychomotor Assessment @ LINK.

    Neuroscience: Corpus Callosum and Autism
    Corpus Callosum and Autism @ LINK to study as reported on mappingignorance.org website.

    Neuroscience: Brain Lateralization: A Comparative Perspective
    Brain Lateralization: A Comparative Perspective @ LINK published on physiology.org peer-review.

    Neuroscience: Autism Lateralization Meta-Analysis
    Autism, lateralisation, and handedness: A review of the literature and meta-analysis @ LINK.

    Neuroscience: Contralateral Control Mechanisms
    The evolution of contralateral control of the body by the brain: Is it a protective mechanism? @ LINK to article.

    Neuroscience: Asymmetry Visual Lateralization
    Asymmetry pays: visual lateralization improves discrimination success in pigeons @ STUDY published on cell.com

    Neuroscience: Brain Lateralization: Comparative Perspective
    Comparative Perspective on brain lateralization meta-study @ STUDY published at physiology.org journal.

    Neuroscience: Advantages of a Lateralized Brain
    Advantages of a Lateralized Brain @ PAPER published by peer-reviewed Royal Society.

    Neuroscience: callosal connectivity in the human brain
    The architecture of functional lateralisation and its relationship to callosal connectivity in the human brain @ LINK published in nature.com journal.

    Neuroscience: Spatial Intelligence in Multiple Intelligences Theory

    WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE on Spatial Intelligence based on the pseudo-scientific meta-ideas of multiple intelligences theory. The theory proposes the differentiation of human intelligence into specific “modalities of intelligence”, rather than defining intelligence as a single, general ability. The theory has been criticized by mainstream psychology for its lack of empirical evidence, and its dependence on subjective judgement.

    Neuroscience: Synaptic Development Articles

    Study overturns age-old theory of brain learning @ Medical News Today article.

    New research to radically alter our understanding of synaptic development @ Oxford University news.

    Choline. A Critical Micronutrient for Baby's Brain Development in Pregnancy @ a8h.com article from Australia.

    Imaging in vivo acetylcholine release in the peripheral nervous system with a fluorescent nanosensor @ PNAS.org article.

    Staphylococcal Plasmids, Transposable and Integrative Elements @ American School of Microbiology article.

    CNS neurons Ependymal cells (inner lining of ventricles, make CSF) Oligodendrocytes Astrocytes @ quizlet.com flashcards on Neurology.

    Synaptopathy @ DEFINITION from Wikipedia.

    Ideas That Will Change The World (2018) @ Roshawn Terrell Blog post.

    Neuroscience: How Computationally Complex Is a Single Neuron? (2-Sept-2021)

    How Computationally Complex Is a Single Neuron? @ Quanta Magazine Article.

    Neuroscience: Corpus Callosum + Synapse Definitions
    Encyclopedia Britannica Online - Corpus Callosum and Synapse useful definitions.

    Neuroscience: Thousand Brains Theory of Intelligence
    Neuroscience: Thousand Brains Theory of Intelligence @ numenta.com summary definition.

    Neuroscience: Numenta - Advancing Machine Intelligence with Neuroscience
    Developing machine intelligence through neocortical theory @ NUMENTA.COM website for Advancing Machine Intelligence with Neuroscience

    Neuroscience: Attention Lateralization
    Comparative vertebrate lateralization @ LINK.

    Neuroscience: Bird Brain Lateralization
    Functional and structural comparison of visual lateralization in birds – similar but still different @ LINK.

    Neuroscience: Brain Hemisphere Research
    Specialisation of function in the Human Brain Estimated By Intrinsic Hemispheric Interaction @ jneurosci.org.

    Neuroscience: Corpus Callosum Lateralisation
    The architecture of functional lateralisation and its relationship to callosal connectivity in the human brain @ LINK.

    Neuroscience: Early Brain Development
    Key processes in early brain development revealed @ LINK.

    Neuroscience: Foetal Learning Before and After Birth
    An Examination of Foetal Learning Before and After Birth @ LINK - Study.

    Neuroscience: How Brain Process What We See

    Neuroscience: Left Right Brain Hemisphere Behaviour
    Left and right brain-oriented hemisity subjects show opposite behavioural preferences


    Neuroscience: Memory Restored in Aged Mice

    Memory Restored in Aged Mice by Modifying the Brain’s ECM

    Components of the extracellular matrix control how synapses function.

    Neuroscience: Modular Consciousness
    Modular Consciousness and the Dual Quadbrain @ LINK.

    Neuroscience: New Language Brain
    Learning a new language changes the brain's division of labour @ LINK.

    Neuroscience: New Role For Specific Brain Regions

    Neuroscience: Plasticity of Language Systems
    Converging Evidence for Differential Specialisation and Plasticity of Language Systems @ LINK.

    Neuroscience: Qualia
    Qualia are defined as individual instances of subjective, conscious experience @ LINK.

    Neuroscience: Quining Qualia
    Daniel Dennett Quining Qualia @ LINK.

    Neuroscience: Notes on Brain Neural Networks
    What is the Zygote algorithm for building brains? What is biological intelligence? What is human intelligence? AI neural networks are all learning to fulfill connectivity. But aren't they still driven by human systems, to create context for the neural networks true/false criteria to reach an objective? Robin Hiesinger RI video: 1943 The Artificial Neuron (McCullough and Pitt) compare to biological neuron in all its complexity 1957 "Perceptron" Marvin Minsky Neumann architecture Decision making trees Symbol processing logic 2006 Minsky - "AI has no common sense" 2011/2012 Deep Neural Network and Big Data: Darwinian against A World Multilayer - AND OR XOR Connectivity: improve architecture like modelling the cortex But more advances by Learning: self learning - reinforcement learning AlphaGo paradigm - no learning per se (DATA) but man made because it's given context: criteria for win/lose MUIZERO latest iteration of AlphaGo Symbol processing logic -- neural networks Data feeding - deep learning self learning Still no genome in the mix. Not even a butterfly brain, which grows in a butterfly from the genome. Arguments for no genome: Learning changed network connectivity, training replaces growth; training order matters; much time much energy required Human brain has 100,000,000,000 neurons Fruitfly brain has 100,000 neurons Nematode worm has 302 neurons Fully neuronally mapped Neuromodulator - chemical (which?) realeased at one end, received at other end - No working connectome diagram - unlike electrical diagram which works 150 Where does the information from? Genome + Energy thru Natural Selection Feedback from Proteins + Time = growing brains not describing it, i.e. information independent Natural Neural Selection can't be predicted but doesn't have to be because it operates blind watchmaker on only outcome instances Algorithmic Information Theory - just as I wrote above. Compressed information. (Ray Solomonoff) https://playgameoflife.com 100x100 board random squares either live, dead or empty. Any live cell with 2 or 3 neighbors survives Any dead cell with 3 neighbors becomes a live cell All other cells die. Dead cells stay dead. Cellular Automaton 1D Algorithmic Growth Unfolding Information Rule 110. Matthew Cook + Steven Wolfram = Universal Turing Machine (over time, all possibilities represented, unpredictable ... Hash?) Action potential: variable, multi directional, multi +/- only excites at +X only inhibits at -Y (Wolfram's A New Kind of Science) Algorithmic Growth for Neural networks: No shortcuts to time and energy Can't be predicted or calculated. Only built by evolution. But computers can at least apply a faster rate of a Darwinian selection points: the crunch! Field Ultimates: Artificial General Intelligence Grown and/or Trained, different scales, different Darwinian criteria No shortcuts to self-assembling brain Heisinger Lab - self-assembling brain.

    Neuroscience: Synaptic Dopamine
    Synaptic Dopamine reuptake and degradation @ LINK.

    News: London Freedom Weekend
    London Freedom Weekend @ LINK.

    NLP: Reid Technique

    Novel: Under the Volcano by Malcolm Lowry
    Under the Volcano by Malcolm Lowry @ PDF E-Book.

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    There are currently 4 definitions in this directory beginning with the letter N.

    Relating to religious belief.

    no true Scotsman

    No true Scotsman (appeal to purity) is an informal fallacy in which one attempts to protect their universal generalisation from a falsifying counterexample by excluding the counterexample improperly. Rather than abandoning the falsified universal generalisation or providing evidence that would disqualify the falsifying counterexample, a slightly modified generalisation is constructed ad-hoc to definitionally exclude the undesirable specific case and counterexamples like it by appeal to rhetoric - emotionally charged but nonsubstantive purity platitudes - like "true, pure, genuine, authentic, real" etc. In short: an "ad hoc rescue" of a refuted generalization attempt.

    Simplified rendition of the fallacy:

    • Person A: "No Scotsman puts sugar on his porridge."
    • Person B: "But my uncle Angus is a Scotsman and he puts sugar on his porridge."
    • Person A: "But no true Scotsman puts sugar on his porridge."

    Appeal to purity is used here to protect/elevate a preferred group. "No true Scotsman would do XYZ" or "Only in Scotland would there be XYZ".


    originating in the Soviet Union, the nomenklatura describes the loosely interconnected social group that monopolises key administrative positions in a governing bureaucracy, running all spheres of national/civic activity (government, industry, agriculture, education etc) from positions conferred by the Communist Party or equivalent. The nomenklatura forms a de facto elite of public powers, a permanent credential class unaccountable to the public but wielding power over it, comparable to the Establishment in Western countries which controls both private and public powers (media, finance, trade, industry, the state, the universities, institutions).

    non-overlapping magisteria [NOMA]

    the philosophical worldview Non-Overlapping Magisteria places religion and science in separate domains of questioning ("magisteria") in order to avoid one contradicting the other. It's a justification for deep-rooted unchallenged cognitive dissonance - practical - for the sake of the religion and its benefits. The designation NOMA was popularised in the book Rock of Ages (1999) by Stephen Jay Gould.

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    There are currently 2 thoughts in this directory beginning with the letter N.

    New York Times: Character Assassin of Orthodontists Dr Mews (20-Aug-2020)

    How Two British Orthodontists Became Celebrities to Incels - The Mews, a father-son team of orthodontists, have an unusual theory about the source of crooked teeth — one that has earned them a following in some of the darker corners of the internet (20-Aug-2020) @ NYT Hit Piece article. Useful both for its information and as a paradigm of current "Cathedral" propaganda tactics.

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    There are currently 2 comments in this directory beginning with the letter N.

    Neuroscience: Consciousness Thought
    Consciousness persistence, chemical balance matters but if chemistry from moment A to A+1 changes little, the spell isn't broken. Sudden changes to general brainchemistry will break it, though if state is thereafter consistent, spell reasserts. It's only strong a associated memories that are parsed against current brainchemistry. If the memories  evoke contradictory chemistry, it'll feel wrong, artificial, unabsorbing. Orgasm makes a paradigm shift in brainchemistry, hence buyer's remorse (!)? Drugs and alcohol can do the same, hence in part the allure.

    Note: suckers v risk taker competence
    Giving money to the most competent risk-takers best positioned, best at exploiting advantaged position etc: it isn't necessary so bad. Infrastructure project billed at 10x cost, massive profit for the business getting the money. Ideally the infrastructure gets built too. Recipient takes a riskb but if he's judicious discreet enough he won't be exposed/punished so the risk pays off. Payment is funded by the millions of docile disorganized suckers working shit jobs for shit money.

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    There is currently 1 blog in this directory beginning with the letter N.

    Norman G Finkelstein Blog. Norm Finkelstein received his PhD from the Princeton University Politics Department in 1988. He is the author of ten books that have been translated into 50 foreign editions, including THE HOLOCAUST INDUSTRY: Reflections on the exploitation of Jewish suffering and, most recently, GAZA: An inquest into its martyrdom.​