Psychometrics is used to profile individuals within society to build data sets for demographics and then build campaigns of influence to change what those demographics believe in – and vote on. The branch of psychology that deals with the design, administration, and interpretation of quantitative tests for the measurement of psychological variables such as intelligence, aptitude, and personality traits.


Big Five Dimensions Facet (and correlated trait adjective)
Extraversion v Introversion Gregariousness (sociable)
Assertiveness (forceful)
Activity (energetic)
Excitement-seeking (adventurous)
Positive emotions (enthusiastic)
Positive emotions (enthusiastic)
Agreeableness v Antagonism Trust (forgiving)
Straightforwardness (not demanding)
Altruism (warm)
Compliance (not stubborn)
Modesty (not show-off)
Tender-mindedness (sympathetic)
Conscientiousness vs Lack of Direction Competence (efficient)
Order (organized)
Dutifulness (not careless)
Achievement striving (thorough)
Self-discipline (not lazy)
Deliberation (not impulsive)
Neuroticism vs. Emotional Stability Anxiety (tense)
Angry hostility (irritable)
Depression (not contented)
Self-consciousness (shy)
Impulsiveness (moody)
Vulnerability (not self-confident)
Openness vs Closedness to Experience Ideas (curious)
Fantasy (imaginative)
Aesthetics (artistic)
Actions (wide interests)
Feelings (excitable)
Values (unconventional)


O.C.E.A.N. is a useful acronym for the Big Five personality traits used in Psychometrics. Research has shown that these factors are interconnected, and also connect with many other aspects of one’s life. Most importantly, these five traits are the current cutting edge of advertising susceptibility i.e. how easily a person can be sold on the product or opinion they don’t yet know they need (or should believe).

The Big Five are so big, they encompass many other traits and bundle related characteristics into one marketing-facing factor. Don’t confuse the Big Five with the higher fidelity Enneagram Personality Tests. The latter isn’t designed specifically for marketing psychometrics.


Each trait represents a continuum. Individuals can fall anywhere on the continuum for each trait. The Big Five remain relatively stable throughout most of one’s lifetime. They are influenced significantly by both genes and the environment, with an estimated heritability of 50%. They are also known to predict certain important life outcomes such as education and health.


  • Openness to experience has been described as the depth and complexity of an individual’s mental life and experiences (John & Srivastava, 1999). It is also sometimes called intellect or imagination.
  • Openness describes a person’s tendency to think in abstract, complex ways. High scorers tend to be creative, adventurous, and intellectual. They enjoy playing with ideas and discovering novel experiences. Low scorers tend to be practical, conventional, and focused on the concrete. They tend to avoid the unknown and follow traditional ways.
  • Openness is strongly related to a person’s interest in art and culture. People who are high in openness tend to enjoy the arts and seek out unusual, complex forms of self-expression. People who are low in openness are often suspicious of the arts and prefer to focus on more practical pursuits.
  • Openness to experience concerns people’s willingness to try to new things, their ability to be vulnerable, and their capability to think outside the box.
  • Common traits related to openness to experience include:
  1. Imagination;
  2. Insightfulness;
  3. Varied interests;
  4. Originality;
  5. Daringness;
  6. Preference for variety;
  7. Cleverness;
  8. Creativity;
  9. Curiosity;
  10. Perceptiveness;
  11. Intellect;
  12. Complexity/depth.

An individual who is high in openness to experience is likely someone who has a love of learning, enjoys the arts, engages in a creative career or hobby, and likes meeting new people (Lebowitz, 2016a).

An individual who is low in openness to experience probably prefers routine over variety, sticks to what he or she knows, and prefers less abstract arts and entertainment.


  • Conscientiousness is a trait that can be described as the tendency to control impulses and act in socially acceptable ways, behaviors that facilitate goal-directed behavior (John & Srivastava, 1999). Conscientious people excel in their ability to delay gratification, work within the rules, and plan and organize effectively.
  • Conscientiousness describes a person’s ability to exercise self-discipline and control in order to pursue their goals. High scorers are organized and determined, and are able to forego immediate gratification for the sake of long-term achievement. Low scorers are impulsive and easily sidetracked.
  • The concept of Conscientiousness focuses on a dilemma we all face: shall I do what feels good now, or instead do what is less fun but will pay off in the future? Some people are more likely to choose fun in the moment, and thus are low in Conscientiousness. Others are more likely to work doggedly toward their goals, and thus are high in this trait.
  • Traits within the conscientiousness factor include:
  1. Persistence;
  2. Ambition;
  3. Thoroughness;
  4. Self-discipline;
  5. Consistency;
  6. Predictability;
  7. Control;
  8. Reliability;
  9. Resourcefulness;
  10. Hard work;
  11. Energy;
  12. Perseverance;
  13. Planning.

People high in conscientiousness are likely to be successful in school and in their careers, to excel in leadership positions, and to doggedly pursue their goals with determination and forethought (Lebowitz, 2016a). People low in conscientiousness are much more likely to procrastinate and to be flighty, impetuous, and impulsive.


  • This factor has two familiar ends of its spectrum: extroversion and introversion. It concerns where an individual draws their energy from and how they interact with others. In general, extroverts draw energy from or recharge by interacting with others, while introverts get tired from interacting with others and replenish their energy with solitude.
  • Extraversion describes a person’s inclination to seek stimulation from the outside world, especially in the form of attention from other people. * Extraverts engage actively with others to earn friendship, admiration, power, status, excitement, and romance. Introverts, on the other hand, conserve their energy, and do not work as hard to earn these social rewards.
  • Extraversion seems to be related to the emotional payoff that a person gets from achieving a goal. While everyone experiences victories in life, it seems that extroverts are especially thrilled by these victories, especially when they earn the attention of others. Getting a promotion, finding a new romance, or winning an award are all likely to bring an extrovert great joy. In contrast, introverts do not experience as much of a “high” from social achievements. They tend to be more content with simple, quiet lives, and rarely seek attention from others.
  • Extroversion traits include:
  1. Sociableness;
  2. Assertiveness;
  3. Merriness;
  4. Outgoing nature;
  5. Energy;
  6. Talkativeness;
  7. Ability to be articulate;
  8. Fun-loving nature;
  9. Tendency for affection;
  10. Friendliness;
  11. Social confidence.

People high in extroversion tend to seek out opportunities for social interaction, where they are often the “life of the party.” They are comfortable with others, are gregarious, and are prone to action rather than contemplation (Lebowitz, 2016a). People low in extroversion are more likely to be people “of few words who are quiet, introspective, reserved, and thoughtful.


  • This factor concerns how well people get along with others. While extroversion concerns sources of energy and the pursuit of interactions with others, agreeableness concerns one’s orientation to others. It is a construct that rests on how an individual generally interacts with others.
  • Agreeableness describes a person’s tendency to put others’ needs ahead of their own, and to cooperate rather than compete with others. People who are high in Agreeableness experience a great deal of empathy and tend to get pleasure out of serving and taking care of others. They are usually trusting and forgiving.
  • People who are low in Agreeableness tend to experience less empathy and put their own concerns ahead of others. Low scorers are often described as hostile, competitive, and antagonistic. They tend to have more conflictual relationships and often fall out with people.
  • The following traits fall under the umbrella of agreeableness:
  1. Altruism;
  2. Trust;
  3. Modesty;
  4. Humbleness;
  5. Patience;
  6. Moderation;
  7. Tact;
  8. Politeness;
  9. Kindness;
  10. Loyalty
  11. Unselfishness;
  12. Helpfulness;
  13. Sensitivity;
  14. Amiability;
  15. Cheerfulness;
  16. Consideration.

People high in agreeableness tend to be well-liked, respected, and sensitive to the needs of others. They likely have few enemies and are affectionate to their friends and loved ones, as well as sympathetic to the plights of strangers (Lebowitz, 2016a). People on the low end of the agreeableness spectrum are less likely to be trusted and liked by others. They tend to be callous, blunt, rude, ill-tempered, antagonistic, and sarcastic. Although not all people who are low in agreeableness are cruel or abrasive, they are not likely to leave others with a warm fuzzy feeling.


  • Neuroticism is not a factor of meanness or incompetence, but one of confidence and being comfortable in one’s own skin. It encompasses one’s emotional stability and general temper.
  • Neuroticism describes a person’s tendency to experience negative emotions, including fear, sadness, anxiety, guilt, and shame. While everyone experiences these emotions from time to time, some people are more prone to them than others.
  • This trait can be thought of as an alarm system. People experience negative emotions as a sign that something is wrong in the world. You may be in danger, so you feel fear. Or you may have done something morally wrong, so you feel guilty. However, not everyone has the same reaction to a given situation. High Neuroticism scorers are more likely to react to a situation with fear, anger, sadness, and the like. Low Neuroticism scorers are more likely to brush off their misfortune and move on.
  • These traits are commonly associated with neuroticism:
  1. Nervous;
  2. Awkwardness;
  3. Pessimism;
  4. Moodiness;
  5. Jealousy;
  6. Testiness;
  7. Fear;
  8. Nervousness;
  9. Anxiety;
  10. Timidness;
  11. Wariness;
  12. Self-criticism;
  13. Lack of confidence;
  14. Insecurity;
  15. Instability;
  16. Oversensitivity.

Those high in neuroticism are generally prone to anxiety, sadness, worry, and low self-esteem. They may be temperamental or easily angered, and they tend to be self-conscious and unsure of themselves (Lebowitz, 2016a). Individuals who score on the low end of neuroticism are more likely to feel confident, sure of themselves, and adventurous. They may also be brave and unencumbered by worry or self-doubt.


Here are a number of characteristics that may or may not apply to you. For example, do you agree that you are someone who likes to spend time with others? Please write a number next to each statement to indicate the extent to which you agree or disagree with that statement.

  1. Disagree strongly
  2. Disagree a little
  3. Neither agree nor disagree
  4. Agree a little
  5. Agree Strongly


I see Myself as Someone Who...
____1. Is talkative 
____2. Tends to find fault with others
____3. Does a thorough job
____4. Is depressed, blue
____5. Is original, comes up with new ideas
____6. Is reserved
____7. Is helpful and unselfish with others
____8. Can be somewhat careless
____9. Is relaxed, handles stress well
____10. Is curious about many different things
____11. Is full of energy
____12. Starts quarrels with others
____13. Is a reliable worker
____14. Can be tense
____15. Is ingenious, a deep thinker
____16. Generates a lot of enthusiasm
____17. Has a forgiving nature
____18. Tends to be disorganized
____19. Worries a lot
____20. Has an active imagination
____21. Tends to be quiet
____22. Is generally trusting
____23. Tends to be lazy
____24. Is emotionally stable, not easily upset
____25. Is inventive
____26. Has an assertive personality
____27. Can be cold and aloof
____28. Perseveres until the task is finished
____29. Can be moody
____30. Values artistic, aesthetic experiences
____31. Is sometimes shy, inhibited
____32. Is considerate and kind to almost everyone
____33. Does things efficiently
____34. Remains calm in tense situations
____35. Prefers work that is routine
____36. Is outgoing, sociable
____37. Is sometimes rude to others
____38. Makes plans and follows through with them
____39. Gets nervous easily
____40. Likes to reflect, play with ideas
____41. Has few artistic interests
____42. Likes to cooperate with others
____43. Is easily distracted
____44. Is sophisticated in art, music, or literature 

BFI scale scoring (“R” denotes reverse-scored items):

  • Extraversion: 1, 6R, 11, 16, 21R, 26, 31R, 36
  • Agreeableness: 2R, 7, 12R, 17, 22, 27R, 32, 37R, 42
  • Conscientiousness: 3, 8R, 13, 18R, 23R, 28, 33, 38, 43R
  • Neuroticism: 4, 9R, 14, 19, 24R, 29, 34R, 39
  • Openness: 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35R, 40, 41R, 44


Rate each question or test statement option with value between 1 and 5 where 1 is most accurate and 5 is least. Answers should correspond to:

  1. SPOT ON!

Here’s the test:

  1. I have a kind word for everyone.
  2. I am always prepared.
  3. I feel comfortable around people.
  4. I often feel blue.
  5. I believe in the importance of art.
  6. I feel I am better than other people.
  7. I avoid taking on a lot of responsibility.
  8. I make friends easily.
  9. There are many things that I do not like about myself.
  10. I am interested in the meaning of things.
  11. I treat everyone with kindness and sympathy.
  12. I get chores done right away.
  13. I am skilled in handling social situations.
  14. I am often troubled by negative thoughts.
  15. I enjoy going to art museums.
  16. I accept people the way they are.
  17. It’s important to me that people are on time.
  18. I am the life of the party.
  19. My moods change easily.
  20. I have a vivid imagination.
  21. I take care of other people before taking care of myself.
  22. I make plans and stick to them.
  23. I don’t like to draw attention to myself.
  24. I often feel anxious about what could go wrong.
  25. I enjoy hearing new ideas.
  26. I start arguments just for the fun of it.
  27. I always make good use of my time.
  28. I have a lot to say.
  29. I often worry that I am not good enough.
  30. I am not interested in abstract ideas.
  31. I criticize other people.
  32. I find it difficult to get to work.
  33. I stay in the background.
  34. I seldom feel blue.
  35. I do not like art.
  36. I stop what I am doing to help other people.
  37. I change my plans frequently.
  38. I don’t talk a lot.
  39. I feel comfortable with myself.
  40. I avoid philosophical discussions.

Rate each word according to how well it describes you. Base your ratings on how you really are, not how you would like to be.

  1. Original
  2. Systematic
  3. Shy
  4. Soft-Hearted
  5. Tense
  6. Inquisitive
  7. Forgetful
  8. Reserved
  9. Agreeable
  10. Nervous
  11. Creative
  12. Self-Disciplined
  13. Outgoing
  14. Charitable
  15. Moody
  16. Imaginative
  17. Organized
  18. Talkative
  19. Humble
  20. Pessimistic

Extra Data:

  • Age
  • Gender
  • Highest Education Level
  • Number of Children


OCEAN Big Five Trait Network (Psychometrics) notes are summarized here.


There have been many attempts to measure the five factors of the Big Five framework, but the most reliable and valid measurements come from the Big Five Inventory and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R). This inventory was developed by Goldberg in 1993 to measure the five dimensions of the Big Five personality framework. It contains 44 items and measures each factor through its corresponding facets:

  • Extroversion;
  • Gregariousness;
  • Assertiveness;
  • Activity;
  • Excitement-seeking;
  • Positive emotions;
  • Warmth;
  • Agreeableness;
  • Trust;
  • Straightforwardness;
  • Altruism;
  • Compliance;
  • Modesty;
  • Tender-mindedness;
  • Conscientiousness;
  • Competence;
  • Order;
  • Dutifulness;
  • Achievement striving;
  • Self-discipline;
  • Deliberation;
  • Neuroticism;
  • Anxiety;
  • Angry hostility;
  • Depression;
  • Self-consciousness;
  • Impulsiveness;
  • Vulnerability;
  • Openness to experience;
  • Ideas;
  • Fantasy;
  • Aesthetics;
  • Actions;
  • Feelings;
  • Values.

The responses to items concerning these facets are combined and summarized to produce a score on each factor. This inventory has been widely used in psychology research and is still quite popular, although the Revised NEO Personality Inventory has also gained much attention in recent years.

The original NEO Personality Inventory was created by personality researchers Paul Costa Jr. and Robert McCrae in 1978. It was later revised several times to keep up with advancements (in 1990, 2005, and 2010). Initially, the NEO Personality Inventory was named for the three main domains as the researchers understood them at the time: neuroticism, extroversion, and openness. This scale is also based on the six facets of each factor and includes 240 items rated on a 5-point scale. For a shorter scale, Costa and McCrae also offer the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, which contains only 60 items and measures just the overall domains instead of all facets. The NEO PI-R requires only a 6th-grade reading level and can be self-administered without a scoring professional. Access to the NEO PI-R isn’t as widely available as the BFI.


Openness to experience has been found to contribute to one’s likelihood of obtaining a leadership position, likely due to the ability to entertain new ideas and think outside the box (Lebowitz, 2016a). Openness is also connected to universalism values, which include promoting peace and tolerance and seeing all people as equally deserving of justice and equality (Douglas, Bore, & Munro, 2016).

Further, research has linked openness to experience with broad intellectual skills and knowledge, and it may increase with age (Schretlen, van der Hulst, Pearlson, & Gordon, 2010). This indicates that openness to experience leads to gains in knowledge and skills, and it naturally increases as a person ages and has more experiences to learn from.

Not only has openness been linked to knowledge and skills, but it was also found to correlate positively with creativity, originality, and a tendency to explore their inner selves with a therapist or psychiatrist, and to correlate negatively with conservative political attitudes (Soldz & Vaillant, 1999).

Not only has openness been found to correlate with many traits, but it has also been found to be extremely stable over time—one study explored trait stability over 45 years and found participants’ openness to experience (along with extroversion and neuroticism) remained relatively stable over that period (Soldz & Vaillant, 1999)

Concerning the other Big Five factors, openness to experience is weakly related to neuroticism and extroversion and is mostly unrelated to agreeableness and conscientiousness (Ones, Viswesvaran, & Reiss, 1996).

Openness to experience is perhaps the trait that is least likely to change over time, and perhaps most likely to help an individual grow. Those high in openness to experience should capitalize on their advantage and explore the world, themselves, and their passions. These individuals make strong and creative leaders and are most likely to come up with the next big innovation.


This factor has been linked to achievement, conformity, and seeking out security, as well as being negatively correlated to placing a premium on stimulation and excitement (Roccas, Sagiv, Schwartz, & Knafo, 2002). Those high in conscientiousness are also likely to value order, duty, achievement, and self-discipline, and they consciously practice deliberation and work toward increased competence (Roccas, Sagiv, Schwartz, & Knafo, 2002).

In light of these correlations, it’s not surprising that conscientiousness is also strongly related to post-training learning (Woods, Patterson, Koczwara, & Sofat, 2016), effective job performance (Barrick & Mount, 1991), and intrinsic and extrinsic career success (Judge, Higgins, Thoresen, & Barrick, 1999).

The long-term study by Soldz and Vaillant (1999) found that conscientiousness was positively correlated with adjustment to life’s challenges and mature defensive responses, indicating that those high in conscientiousness are often well-prepared to tackle any obstacles that come their way.

Conscientiousness is negatively correlated with depression, smoking, substance abuse, and engagement in psychiatric treatment. The trait was also found to correlate somewhat negatively with neuroticism and somewhat positively with agreeableness, but it had no discernible relation to the other factors (Ones, Viswesvaran, & Reiss, 1996).

From these results, it’s clear that those gifted with high conscientiousness have a distinct advantage over those who are not. Those with high conscientiousness should attempt to use their strengths to the best of their abilities, including organization, planning, perseverance, and tendency towards high achievement.

As long as the highly conscientious do not fall prey to exaggerated perfectionism, they are likely to achieve many of the traditional markers of success.


The same long-term study also found that extroversion was fairly stable across the years, indicating that extroverts and introverts do not often shift into the opposite state (Soldz & Vaillant, 1999).

Because of its ease of measurement and general stability over time, extroversion is an excellent predictor of effective functioning and general well-being (Ozer & Benet-Martinez, 2006), positive emotions (Verduyn & Brans, 2012), and overconfidence in task performance (Schaefer, Williams, Goodie, & Campbell, 2004).

When analyzed in relation to the other Big Five factors, extroversion correlated weakly and negatively with neuroticism and was somewhat positively related to openness to experience (Ones, Viswesvaran, & Reiss, 1996).

Those who score high in extroversion are likely to make friends easily and enjoy interacting with others, but they may want to pay extra attention to making well-thought-out decisions and considering the needs and sensitivities of others.

Those high in extroversion are likely to value achievement and stimulation, and unlikely to value tradition or conformity (Roccas, Sagiv, Schwartz, & Knafo, 2002). Extroverts are often assertive, active, and sociable, shunning self-denial in favor of excitement and pleasure.

Considering these findings, it follows that high extroversion is a strong predictor of leadership, and contributes to the success of managers and salespeople as well as the success of all job levels in training proficiency (Barrick & Mount, 1991). Over a lifetime, high extroversion correlates positively with a high income, conservative political attitudes, early life adjustment to challenges, and social relationships (Soldz & Vaillant, 1999).


Agreeable individuals tend to value benevolence, tradition, and conformity while avoiding placing too much importance on power, achievement, or the pursuit of selfish pleasures (Roccas, Sagiv, Schwartz, & Knafo, 2002).

Agreeableness may be motivated by the desire to fulfill social obligations or follow established norms, or it may spring from a genuine concern for the welfare of others. Whatever the motivation, it is rarely accompanied by cruelty, ruthlessness, or selfishness (Roccas, Sagiv, Schwartz, & Knafo, 2002).

Those high in agreeableness are also more likely to have positive peer and family relationships, model gratitude and forgiveness, attain desired jobs, live long lives, experience relationship satisfaction, and volunteer in their communities (Ozer & Benet-Martinez, 2006).

Agreeableness affects many life outcomes because it influences any arena in which interactions with others are important—and that includes almost everything. In the long-term, high agreeableness is related to strong social support and healthy midlife adjustment but is slightly negatively correlated to creativity (Soldz & Vaillant, 1999).

Those who are friendly and endearing to others may find themselves without the motivation to achieve a traditional measure of success, and they might choose to focus on family and friends instead.

Agreeableness correlates weakly with extroversion and is somewhat negatively related to neuroticism and somewhat positively correlated to conscientiousness (Ones, Viswesvaran, & Reiss, 1996).

Individuals high in agreeableness are likely to have many close friends and a good relationship with family members, but there is a slight risk of consistently putting others before themselves and missing out on opportunities for success, learning, and development. Those who are friendly and agreeable to others can leverage their strengths by turning to their social support networks for help when needed and finding fulfillment in positive engagement with their communities.


Neuroticism has been found to correlate negatively with self-esteem and general self-efficacy, as well as with an internal locus of control (feeling like one has control over his or her own life) (Judge, Erez, Bono, & Thoresen, 2002). In fact, these four traits are so closely related that they may fall under one umbrella construct.

In addition, neuroticism has been linked to poorer job performance and lower motivation, including motivation related to goal-setting and self-efficacy (Judge & Ilies, 2002). It likely comes as no surprise that instability and vulnerability to stress and anxiety do not support one’s best work.

The anxiety and self-consciousness components of neuroticism are also positively linked to more traditional values and are negatively correlated with achievement values. The hostility and impulsiveness components of neuroticism relate positively to hedonism (or seeking pleasure without regards to the long-term and a disregard for right and wrong) and negatively relate to benevolence, tradition, and conformity (Roccas, Sagiv, Schwartz, & Knafo, 2002).

The 45-year-long study from researchers Soldz and Vaillant showed that neuroticism, over the course of the study, was negatively correlated with smoking cessation and healthy adjustment to life and correlated positively with drug usage, alcohol abuse, and mental health issues (1999).

Neuroticism was found to correlate somewhat negatively with agreeableness and conscientiousness, in addition to a weak, negative relationship with extroversion and openness to experience (Ones, Viswevaran, & Reiss, 1996).

Overall, high neuroticism is related to added difficulties in life, including addiction, poor job performance, and unhealthy adjustment to life’s changes. Scoring high on neuroticism is not an immediate sentence to a miserable life, but those in this group would benefit from investing in improvements to their self-confidence, building resources to draw on in times of difficulty, and avoiding any substances with addictive properties.



The Enneagram is a pseudoscience personality system that bills itself as standards to reveal how emotions drive a person’s life and how he or she engages with others in an effort to get what he or she wants and needs but in reality is a more useful as a data harvesting tool for gathering population-scale datasets.

The Enneagram defines nine personality facets, each with its own set of strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for personal growth.

At its simplest level, the Enneagram Personality Test reveals your Personality Type. This is made up of nine Personality Facets. The Enneagram Personality Type professes to reveal what motivates an individual on a profound level, and illuminates the path he or she must take to achieve a higher level of self-actualisation.


Read each of the statements about yourself. Answer to the best of your knowledge, honestly. The Enneagram is only effective if the answers are authentic. In each answer, you should respond with a number between 1 and 5 ranging from very inaccurate (1) to very accurate (5).

  • 1 = very inaccurate
  • 2 = partly inaccurate
  • 3 = neither accurate nor inaccurate
  • 4 = partly accurate
  • 5 = very accurate
  1. I strive for perfection
  2. I work hard to be helpful to others
  3. It is important to me that other people like me
  4. It is important to me to achieve great things
  5. I make more significant contributions than the average person
  6. I feel my emotions very deeply
  7. I have a sense that other people will never truly understand me
  8. I think deeply about things
  9. I am prepared for any disaster
  10. It is important to me to avoid pain and suffering at all times
  11. I seek out experiences that I know will make me feel happy or excited
  12. I see the positive in every situation
  13. I am not afraid to tell someone when I think they are wrong
  14. I let other people make the decisions
  15. I appreciate having rules that people are expected to follow
  16. I am concerned about security more than anything else
  17. I think a lot about what will happen in the future
  18. I don’t fit in with ordinary people
  19. There is rarely a good reason for changing how things are done
  20. I always finish my chores
  21. I am always trying to be a better person
  22. I check carefully for mistakes and errors
  23. I like to be around people who I can help
  24. I like to feel that I am an important person in my social groups
  25. It is important to me to be successful
  26. The organizations I belong to would not function well without me
  27. I often feel overtaken by my emotions
  28. I have always felt different from other people
  29. I like to analyze things from every angle
  30. I always have a plan for what I would do if things go wrong
  31. I avoid situations that bring up negative feelings
  32. I seek excitement
  33. I am good at seeing the bright side of things when others complain
  34. I do not hesitate to call people out when they are behaving badly
  35. I go along with what other people want
  36. People should follow the rules instead of doing what they feel like doing
  37. I seek out relationships that offer me some type of protection
  38. I can clearly visualize what could happen in the future
  39. Average people often find me a bit weird
  40. I like to do things as I’ve always done them
  41. I persist until a task is done
  42. I spend time trying to discover and correct my faults and weaknesses
  43. I hold myself to very high standards
  44. I am a natural caretaker
  45. I want people to admire me
  46. I want to achieve a lot in my life
  47. If I am honest, I feel that I am a bit better than other people
  48. I feel a deep sense of grief for what I have lost
  49. I am an unusual sort of person
  50. I take time to understand things more deeply than most people do
  51. It is important to me to be prepared for any emergency
  52. I distract myself from any sad feelings that arise
  53. I often make changes in my life when things get boring
  54. I tend to be more optimistic than most people
  55. I tell people what I think, even if it is hard to hear
  56. I would rather follow the group than push for what I want
  57. I feel most comfortable in organizations with a clear hierarchy
  58. I take measures to protect myself and my loved ones from harm
  59. I make plans for many years into the future
  60. I am an unusually unique person
  61. I dislike trying new methods or procedures
  62. I focus on my responsibilities and duties
  63. I read books that help me be more productive or better at what I do
  64. I put a lot of pressure on myself to do things right
  65. I take the initiative to help other people and make their lives easier
  66. I put in the effort to make a good impression on other people
  67. I set ambitious goals for myself
  68. I am an important member of my social groups
  69. I can describe my emotions in a lot of depth and detail
  70. I often feel like an outsider
  71. I find my mind to be a very interesting place
  72. I am always aware of what can go wrong in a situation
  73. I have many ways of avoiding situations that get me down
  74. I am always up for a new adventure
  75. I believe that things usually work out for the best
  76. I stand up for what I believe in, even if it upsets other people
  77. I let other people take the lead
  78. I dislike people who disrupt things by breaking the rules
  79. I make alliances with people who can help me stay safe and secure
  80. I am often looking ahead, toward what is coming next
  81. I have different interests than most people
  82. The traditional way of doing things is the best way
  83. I am a responsible and reliable person
  84. I have a lot of plans for how I can improve myself
  85. I make sure that even small details are correct
  86. I enjoy caring for others and their needs
  87. I want to be a person that others can look up to
  88. I push myself to succeed
  89. I make important contributions to my community
  90. I rarely have strong emotions
  91. I feel I never truly belong in social groups
  92. I want to learn as much as I can about how the world works
  93. It is important for me to understand what can go wrong in a situation
  94. I take steps to ensure I don’t feel sad or lonely
  95. Trying new things keeps life interesting
  96. I am an upbeat person
  97. I am usually the one to take a stand when others won’t
  98. Other people have stronger opinions than I do
  99. Everyone has a role to play in society and a duty to do their best
  100. I am concerned with protecting what I have
  101. I have a good sense of what my future holds
  102. I am an average person with ordinary likes and dislikes
  103. I try new ways of doing things just to see if they will work
  104. I have a great deal of willpower
  105. Self improvement is a major interest of mine






    • The Rational, Idealistic Type: Principled, Purposeful, Self-Controlled, and Perfectionistic

    • The Caring, Interpersonal Type: Demonstrative, Generous, People-Pleasing, and Possessive

    • The Success-Oriented, Pragmatic Type: Adaptive, Excelling, Driven, and Image-Conscious

    • The Sensitive, Withdrawn Type: Expressive, Dramatic, Self-Absorbed, and Temperamental

    • The Intense, Cerebral Type: Perceptive, Innovative, Secretive, and Isolated

    • The Committed, Security-Oriented Type: Engaging, Responsible, Anxious, and Suspicious

    • The Busy, Fun-Loving Type: Spontaneous, Versatile, Distractible, and Scattered

    • The Powerful, Dominating Type: Self-Confident, Decisive, Willful, and Confrontational

    • The Easygoing, Self-Effacing Type: Receptive, Reassuring, Agreeable, and Complacent




People high in the need for cognition are more likely to form their attitudes by paying close attention to relevant arguments (i.e., via the central route to persuasion), whereas people low in the need for cognition are more likely to rely on peripheral cues, such as how attractive or credible a speaker is. People low in need for cognition are also more likely to rely on stereotypes alone in judging other people than those high in need for cognition.[16]

Psychological research on the need for cognition has been conducted using self-report tests, where research participants answered a series of statements such as “I prefer my life to be filled with puzzles that I must solve” and were scored on how much they felt the statements represented them. The results have suggested that people who are high in the need for cognition scale score slightly higher in verbal intelligence tests but no higher in abstract reasoning tests.[12]

Research has concluded that individuals high in NFC are less likely to attribute higher social desirability to more attractive individuals or to mates.[17] College students high in NFC report higher life satisfaction.


NFC is associated with the amount of thought that goes into making a decision. Both high and low levels of the trait may be associated with particular biases in judgment. People low in need for cognition tend to show more bias when this bias is due to relying on mental shortcuts, that is, heuristic biases. People high in this trait tend to be more affected by biases that are generated by effortful thought.


A bias associated with low need for cognition is the halo effect, a phenomenon in which attractive or likeable people tend to be rated as superior on a variety of other characteristics (e.g., intelligence). People low on NFC are more likely to rely on stereotypes rather than individual features of a person when rating a novel target. People high in NFC still show a halo effect however, albeit a smaller one, perhaps because their thoughts about the target are still biased by the target’s attractiveness.


High need for cognition is associated with a greater susceptibility to the creation of false memories associated with certain learning tasks. In a commonly used research paradigm, participants are asked to memorise a list of related words. Recognition is tested by having them pick out learned words from a set of studied and non-studied items. Certain non-studied items are conceptually related to studied items (e.g., chair if the original list contained table and legs). People high in NFC are more likely to show false memory for these lures, due to their greater elaboration of learned items in memory as they are more likely to think of semantically related (but non-studied) items.


The documents below are real-world documents about the relatively new field of psychometric profiling, big data analysis and individuated microtargeting. It’s the defining public opinion trend of our time. Understanding how psychometrics works is essential, if you want to stand any chance of contributing to the public conversation in a way that sticks, in a way that’s not here today, forgotten tomorrow.

  1. Psychometric Profiling Microtargeting Campaign – Cambridge Analytica & Affiliates


  • NFC has been found to relate positively to openness to experience most strongly and to a more moderate extent to conscientiousness, particularly the competence and achievement striving facets, and to relate inversely to an extent to neuroticism.
  • NFC has been related negatively to harm avoidance and positively to persistence and was unrelated to reward dependence or novelty seeking.
  • NFC has only a weak positive relationship with sensation seeking, specifically a weak correlation with the boredom susceptibility subscale but no relationship to the other subscales.
  • NFC has a modest inverse correlation with negative affect. NFC had no significant correlation with a broad measure of overall positive affect, although it was positively correlated with feelings of activity, interest, and alertness.
  • NFC has been positively related to other, theoretically unrelated, personality characteristics such as self-esteem, masculine sex-role attitudes, and absorption.
  • NFC is negatively related to social anxiety (more strongly in females than males).
  • It has been speculated that people who more carefully analyse their world feel a greater sense of mastery, and hence greater self-esteem, although it is also possible that higher self-esteem may lead to greater motivation to engage in thinking.
  • NFC may be related to masculine sex-role due to the stereotype associating masculinity with rationality.
  • Regarding absorption, people high in NFC may find it easier to devote their attentional processes exclusively to intellectual tasks.
  • Regarding social anxiety, it is possible that greater attention to cognitive activity may be associated with reduced attention to social cues associated with negative evaluation.
  • NFC is positively related to stimulation, self-direction, and universalism values, and negatively to security and conformity values.