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Master List of Logical Fallacies

 

GLOSSARY

 

INFOGRAPHICS

 

 

 

All | A B C D E F G H I J M N O P S T V Z
There are currently 43 definitions in this directory
A

actuarial table
a table or spreadsheet that shows the probability of a person at a certain age dying before their next birthday

B

baseless
propagandist print media inclusion to discredit something heterodox

bidirectional digital media
B.D.D.M. (as it is called) is a coverall term for social media but also academic non-local learning - popular during the coronavirus pandemic

blockchain
the blockchain is an append-only data structure composed of subunits called blocks - [blocks] are permanently ‘chained’ together - in practice, the blockchain is an immutable medium because it contains instructions in the form of computer code replicated across thousands of nodes much like DNA [is replicated] in cells
  • Emergent Bioanalogous Properties of Blockchain-based Distributed Systems

  • blockchain nodes
    nodes on the blockchain are important because rather than a central administrator maintaining a big computer server in one location (and controlling everything going in and out of it), the blockchain database is distributed as many identical encrypted copies across a large network of multiple computers - the nodes somewhat like cells which contain many identical copies of DNA

    C

    chicano
    Chicano (as an identity) came to prominence in the 1960s and 1970s as Mexican Americans asserted their own ethnic, political, and cultural identity while rejecting and resisting assimilation into systematic racism and stereotypes, colonialism, and the American plutocracy-state imperialism. Chicano identity was organized around seven objectives: unity, economy, education, institutions, self-defence, culture, and political liberation, in an effort to bridge regional and class divisions among people of Mexican (and latterly Latin American) descent

    cassandra

    The term originates in Greek mythology. Struck by the beauty of Cassandra, daughter of Priam, Apollo provided her with the gift of prophecy, but when Cassandra refused Apollo's romantic advances, he placed a curse ensuring that nobody would believe her warnings. Cassandra was left with the knowledge of future events, but could neither alter these events nor convince others of the validity of her predictions. In psychology the Cassandra metaphor applies to to individuals who experience physical and emotional suffering as a result of distressing personal perceptions, and who are disbelieved when they attempt to share the cause of their suffering with others.


    contract research organization
    company that provides support to the pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and medical device industries in the form of research services outsourced on a contract basis. A CRO may provide such services as biopharmaceutical development, biologic assay development, commercialisation, preclinical research, clinical research, clinical trials management, and pharmacovigilance.

    D

    dasein
    Dasein (German loanword) that means "being there" or "presence" - often translated i"existence". Existentialist philosopher Martin Heidegger uses the expression Dasein to refer to the experience of being that is peculiar to human beings.

    dormer
    A dormer is a roofed structure, often containing a window, that projects vertically beyond the plane of a pitched roof, and a dormer window (also called dormer) is a form of roof window

    data | datum

    Data is a mass noun, uncountable noun, or non-count noun is a noun with the syntactic property that any quantity of it is treated as an undifferentiated unit, rather than as something with discrete elements. Non-count nouns are distinguished from count nouns. Sand, family, etc.

    Recently data has been singled out for abuse. "Data is" has been inexplicably morphing into "data are" and the usual cunts absorb and proliferate this change as if Oceania has always been at war with Eastasia.



    E

    excerpt
    A short extract from a continuous whole thing.

    exigent
    pressing; demanding e.g. "the exigent demands of her contemporaries' music took a toll on her voice"

    elite theory
    In political science and sociology, elite theory is a theory of the state that seeks to describe and explain power relationships in contemporary society. It posits that a small minority, consisting of members of the economic elite and policy-planning networks, holds the most power—and that this power is independent of democratic elections. Through positions in corporations or on corporate boards, and influence over policy-planning networks through financial support of foundations or positions with think tanks or policy-discussion groups, members of the "elite" exert significant power over corporate and government decisions. See What is an Elite Democracy? question on Quora re: popular conception

    establishment

    In essence, the Establishment is a dominant group or elite that controls a polity or an organisation, often an influential closed social group that selects its own members or an entrenched élite structure sharing social, economic and class bonds, often born and bred. In sociology jargon, the upper eschelons of a society is divided between insider and outsider. The Establishment is made up of insiders; far smaller than the outsiders numerically but also far more influential. The term in its modern sense was popularised by the British journalist Henry Fairlie writing in the London magazine The Spectator in 1955: "By the Establishment, I do not only mean the centres of official power—though they are certainly part of it—but rather the whole matrix of official and social relations within which power is exercised. The exercise of power in England cannot be understood unless it is recognised that it is exercised socially."


    existentialism absurdism

    Sartre is tagged with Existentialism, Camus is tagged with Absurdism. Both too reductive but anyway: Existentialism vs Absurdism — Explanations and Key Differences of Each.


    F

    force majeure
    unforeseeable circumstances that prevent someone from fulfilling a contract - irresistible compulsion or superior strength

    G

    gleichgeschaltet
    Literally "synchronized" or brought into line and good order - synonymous with Nazification of extant institutions like universities and media outlets, bringing them into line with the National Socialist worldview

    H

    haecceity
    A ‘haecceity’ (from the Latin, haecceitas, which translates literally as ‘thisness’) is a certain kind of property: a primitive, particular, nonqualitative property of an individual, i.e. the property of being a specific individual (or, perhaps, the property of being identical with a specific individual).

    I

    incipient
    Just beginning: signs of incipient public frustration.

    J

    jeremiah

    Modern usage based on the Hebrew biblical prophet Jeremiah who pronounced God's judgment upon the people of his time for their wickedness. The original Jeremiah was concerned especially with false and insincere worship and failure to trust Yahweh in national affairs. He denounced social injustices but not so much as some previous prophets, such as Amos and Micah @ University of Toronto on Judaism and Claude Mariottini Jeremiah Use of Metaphor articles.


    M

    mugwumps
    Mugwumps were Republican political activists in the USA opposed to political corruption, switching parties en masse (e.g. supporting Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland in 1884) because of the Republican candidate's long association with plutocracy corruption

    mechanism (marketing)
    people want something fast and without effort, like getting rich or getting thin. mechanism is the ever changing bullshit process sold to achieve the want. It's always changing as people get wise to a particular mechanism, new mechanisms are needed to profit from the want.

    missing context
    "Missing context" is the fact-checker euphemism for "this claim is correct but we don't want anyone screencapping this as ammo."

    N

    numinous
    Relating to religious belief.

    no true Scotsman

    No true Scotsman (appeal to purity) is an informal fallacy in which one attempts to protect their universal generalisation from a falsifying counterexample by excluding the counterexample improperly. Rather than abandoning the falsified universal generalisation or providing evidence that would disqualify the falsifying counterexample, a slightly modified generalisation is constructed ad-hoc to definitionally exclude the undesirable specific case and counterexamples like it by appeal to rhetoric - emotionally charged but nonsubstantive purity platitudes - like "true, pure, genuine, authentic, real" etc. In short: an "ad hoc rescue" of a refuted generalization attempt.

    Simplified rendition of the fallacy:

    • Person A: "No Scotsman puts sugar on his porridge."
    • Person B: "But my uncle Angus is a Scotsman and he puts sugar on his porridge."
    • Person A: "But no true Scotsman puts sugar on his porridge."

    Appeal to purity is used here to protect/elevate a preferred group. "No true Scotsman would do XYZ" or "Only in Scotland would there be XYZ".


    nomenklatura

    originating in the Soviet Union, the nomenklatura describes the loosely interconnected social group that monopolises key administrative positions in a governing bureaucracy, running all spheres of national/civic activity (government, industry, agriculture, education etc) from positions conferred by the Communist Party or equivalent. The nomenklatura forms a de facto elite of public powers, a permanent credential class unaccountable to the public but wielding power over it, comparable to the Establishment in Western countries which controls both private and public powers (media, finance, trade, industry, the state, the universities, institutions).


    non-overlapping magisteria [NOMA]

    the philosophical worldview Non-Overlapping Magisteria places religion and science in separate domains of questioning ("magisteria") in order to avoid one contradicting the other. It's a justification for deep-rooted unchallenged cognitive dissonance - practical - for the sake of the religion and its benefits. The designation NOMA was popularised in the book Rock of Ages (1999) by Stephen Jay Gould.


    O

    omerta
    unspoken but absolute code of silence

    occluded
    Occluded refers to stopping something by closing up the way in or the line of sight; to obstruct (an opening, orifice, or passage) e.g. thick makeup can occlude the pores.

    P

    plebs

    Did MS spell checker recently alter the word plebs to plebES? #NoteToSelf

    PLEBS used to be ubiquitous but now PLEBES is creeping into the vernacular of swathES:nerd_face: of non-academic US middle class. This demographic is also starting to actually say "pleeb" instead of "plebb". WTF? Merriam-Webster Screenshot as posted on Twitter.


    polyanna

    Typically, an excessively or blindly optimistic person, per the Pollyanna principle which is the basis of polyanna syndrome in modern psychotherapy. Originally "Polyanna" comes from the 1913 novel Pollyanna by American author Eleanor H. Porter, making "Pollyanna" a byword for someone who – like the title character – has an unfailingly optimistic outlook through practical "look for the glad in the difficulty and sorrow". Nowadays the word has devolved into simply excessive almost unrealistic (blind) optimism.


    Privilege Walk

    The Privilege Walk or Power Shuffle is a diversity-training workshop activity. Participants stand together on a line, then each steps forward or backwards in response to a series of statements such as: “If you’re a white male, take one step forward. If you were ever made uncomfortable by a joke about your ethnicity, gender, appearance, or sexual orientation, take one step back.” At the end participants find themselves arrayed along a continuum of “privilege.” Thus sorted, discussion ensues.

    Christian Parenti on the Privilege Walk"The Privilege Walk relies on a methodological individualism that assumes macro-level social phenomena have micro-level causes and solutions. This fixation on individual choice and personal attitudes reproduces the epistemological fallacies of neoclassical economics and most of right-leaning social science."


    S

    simony
    the buying or selling of ecclesiastical privileges, for example pardons or benefices

    ship of Theseus
    In the metaphysics of identity, the Ship of Theseus is a thought experiment that raises the question of whether an object that has had all of its components replaced remains fundamentally the same object. The concept is one of the oldest in Western philosophy, having been discussed by Heraclitus and Plato by c. 500–400 BC, based on the 30-oar ship Theseus and the rescued sacrifices (youth of Athens) piloted back from King Minos' Crete to Athens, after having slain the minotaur.

    stochastic
    Stochastic refers to the property of being well described by a random probability distribution - note: stochasticity and randomness are distinct in that the former refers to a modeling approach and the latter refers to phenomena itself, these two terms are often used as being synonyms - adj. Of, relating to, or characterized by conjecture; conjectural - involving or containing a random variable or process - conjectural; given to or partaking of conjecture

    swathe | swath
    Swathe and swath aren't synonyms - somehow the words have separated, with some Americans using "swath" and others using "swathe" - but they have different definitions and anyone who uses SWATH when they should say SWATHE is a cunt

    synaptopathy
    synaptopathy is a disease of the brain, spinal cord or peripheral nervous system relating to the dysfunction of synapses that can arise as a result of a mutation in a gene encoding a synaptic protein such as an ion channel, neurotransmitter receptor, or a protein involved in neurotransmitter release; or sometimes as a result of an autoantibody targeting a synaptic protein

    T

    telos
    Telos is a term used by philosopher Aristotle to refer to the full potential or inherent purpose or objective of a person or thing, similar to the notion of an 'end goal' or 'raison d'être' - can be understood as the "supreme end of man's endeavour"

    tabula rasa (blank slate)
    Formalised by philosopher John Locke (1632-1704) in n Essay Concerning Human Understanding, tabula rasa is the theory that individuals are born without built-in mental content (ideas) and therefore all knowledge (conceptual) comes from experience or perception - epistemological proponents of tabula rasa disagree with the doctrine of innatism, which holds that the mind is born already in possession of certain knowledge - instead preferring nuture over nature emphasis (without discounting nature exerting great influence over nurture) building on potentials that vary from person to person

    V

    vocal fry register
    The lowest vocal register and is produced through a loose glottal closure that permits air to bubble through slowly with a popping or rattling sound of a very low frequency as per Wikipedia definition

    Z

    zealot
    extremely enthusiastic advocate (follower) of a particular dognma - origin early 14c into English from "member of a militant 1st century Jewish sect which fiercely resisted the Romans in Palestine" (late Latin zelotes, from Greek zēlōtēs "one who is a zealous follower") with extended sense of "a fanatical enthusiast" first recorded 1630s (earlier mid-15c this sense was zelator)

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