geotopia

mRNA vaccine
mRNA as a protective vaccine. While mRNA was originally found to be viable for in vivo gene transfer in the early 1990’s, the development of mRNA vaccines was initiated much later due to the inherent instability of mRNA compared to DNA (57). The efficacy of mRNA vaccines can be increased by several factors, such as ensuring mRNA purity, adding 5’ Kozak and cap sequences, 3’ poly-A sequences and modified nucleosides to increase mRNA stability and decrease detection by the receptors of innate immune cells, codon optimization, introduction by intramuscular, and intradermal injection to reduce RNA degradation, and by generating thermostable mRNA (57–59) (Figures 4, 5). Methods to encapsulate RNA have also been explored to increase the stability and immunogenicity of RNA vaccines, as has been used with exosome encapsulated RNA (60) and RNA-transfected dendritic cells (61, 62). When fully optimized, RNA vaccines may have an immunogenic advantage over DNA vaccines due to the presence of multiple cellular pathways that activate innate immunity in response to foreign RNA such as the toll-like receptors (TLRs) and RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) (63, 64).
Coronavirus
Twat on a brick fuckstick.
Covid-19 Vaccines
Twat on a brick fuckstick.
Duopoly
Twat on a brick fuckstick.
Anglo-American Hegemony
Twat on a brick fuckstick.
China
Twat on a brick fuckstick.
European Union
Twat on a brick fuckstick.
Who knows?
Twat on a brick fuckstick.

 

 


HAMPSTEAD/NW3, LONDON, UK

CASTLE COOMBE-CHIPPING SODOFF, COTSWOLDS, OXFORDSHIRE, UK

CAMBRIDGE, UK

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