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There are currently 31 definitions in this directory
actuarial table
a table or spreadsheet that shows the probability of a person at a certain age dying before their next birthday
propagandist print media inclusion to discredit something heterodox
bidirectional digital media
B.D.D.M. (as it is called) is a coverall term for social media but also academic non-local learning - popular during the coronavirus pandemic

The term originates in Greek mythology. Struck by the beauty of Cassandra, daughter of Priam, Apollo provided her with the gift of prophecy, but when Cassandra refused Apollo's romantic advances, he placed a curse ensuring that nobody would believe her warnings. Cassandra was left with the knowledge of future events, but could neither alter these events nor convince others of the validity of her predictions. In psychology the Cassandra metaphor applies to to individuals who experience physical and emotional suffering as a result of distressing personal perceptions, and who are disbelieved when they attempt to share the cause of their suffering with others.

A dormer is a roofed structure, often containing a window, that projects vertically beyond the plane of a pitched roof, and a dormer window (also called dormer) is a form of roof window
data | datum

Data is a mass noun, uncountable noun, or non-count noun is a noun with the syntactic property that any quantity of it is treated as an undifferentiated unit, rather than as something with discrete elements. Non-count nouns are distinguished from count nouns. Sand, family, etc.

Recently data has been singled out for abuse. "Data is" has been inexplicably morphing into "data are" and the usual cunts absorb and proliferate this change as if Oceania has always been at war with Eastasia.

A short extract from a continuous whole thing.
pressing; demanding e.g. "the exigent demands of her contemporaries' music took a toll on her voice"
existentialism absurdism

Sartre is tagged with Existentialism, Camus is tagged with Absurdism. Both too reductive but anyway: Existentialism vs Absurdism — Explanations and Key Differences of Each.

force majeure
unforeseeable circumstances that prevent someone from fulfilling a contract - irresistible compulsion or superior strength
Literally "synchronized" or brought into line and good order - synonymous with Nazification of extant institutions like universities and media outlets, bringing them into line with the National Socialist worldview
A ‘haecceity’ (from the Latin, haecceitas, which translates literally as ‘thisness’) is a certain kind of property: a primitive, particular, nonqualitative property of an individual, i.e. the property of being a specific individual (or, perhaps, the property of being identical with a specific individual).
Just beginning: signs of incipient public frustration.

Modern usage based on the Hebrew biblical prophet Jeremiah who pronounced God's judgment upon the people of his time for their wickedness. The original Jeremiah was concerned especially with false and insincere worship and failure to trust Yahweh in national affairs. He denounced social injustices but not so much as some previous prophets, such as Amos and Micah @ University of Toronto on Judaism and Claude Mariottini Jeremiah Use of Metaphor articles.

mechanism (marketing)
people want something fast and without effort, like getting rich or getting thin. mechanism is the ever changing bullshit process sold to achieve the want. It's always changing as people get wise to a particular mechanism, new mechanisms are needed to profit from the want.
missing context
"Missing context" is the fact-checker euphemism for "this claim is correct but we don't want anyone screencapping this as ammo."
Relating to religious belief.
no true Scotsman

No true Scotsman (appeal to purity) is an informal fallacy in which one attempts to protect their universal generalisation from a falsifying counterexample by excluding the counterexample improperly. Rather than abandoning the falsified universal generalisation or providing evidence that would disqualify the falsifying counterexample, a slightly modified generalisation is constructed ad-hoc to definitionally exclude the undesirable specific case and counterexamples like it by appeal to rhetoric - emotionally charged but nonsubstantive purity platitudes - like "true, pure, genuine, authentic, real" etc. In short: an "ad hoc rescue" of a refuted generalization attempt.

Simplified rendition of the fallacy:

  • Person A: "No Scotsman puts sugar on his porridge."
  • Person B: "But my uncle Angus is a Scotsman and he puts sugar on his porridge."
  • Person A: "But no true Scotsman puts sugar on his porridge."

Appeal to purity is used here to protect/elevate a preferred group. "No true Scotsman would do XYZ" or "Only in Scotland would there be XYZ".

unspoken but absolute code of silence
Occluded refers to stopping something by closing up the way in or the line of sight; to obstruct (an opening, orifice, or passage) e.g. thick makeup can occlude the pores.

Did MS spell checker recently alter the word plebs to plebES? #NoteToSelf

PLEBS used to be ubiquitous but now PLEBES is creeping into the vernacular of swathES:nerd_face: of non-academic US middle class. This demographic is also starting to actually say "pleeb" instead of "plebb". WTF? Merriam-Webster Screenshot as posted on Twitter.


Typically, an excessively or blindly optimistic person, per the Pollyanna principle which is the basis of polyanna syndrome in modern psychotherapy. Originally "Polyanna" comes from the 1913 novel Pollyanna by American author Eleanor H. Porter, making "Pollyanna" a byword for someone who – like the title character – has an unfailingly optimistic outlook through practical "look for the glad in the difficulty and sorrow". Nowadays the word has devolved into simply excessive almost unrealistic (blind) optimism.

the buying or selling of ecclesiastical privileges, for example pardons or benefices
ship of Theseus
In the metaphysics of identity, the Ship of Theseus is a thought experiment that raises the question of whether an object that has had all of its components replaced remains fundamentally the same object. The concept is one of the oldest in Western philosophy, having been discussed by Heraclitus and Plato by c. 500–400 BC, based on the 30-oar ship Theseus and the rescued sacrifices (youth of Athens) piloted back from King Minos' Crete to Athens, after having slain the minotaur.
Stochastic refers to the property of being well described by a random probability distribution - note: stochasticity and randomness are distinct in that the former refers to a modeling approach and the latter refers to phenomena itself, these two terms are often used as being synonyms - adj. Of, relating to, or characterized by conjecture; conjectural - involving or containing a random variable or process - conjectural; given to or partaking of conjecture
swathe | swath
Swathe and swath aren't synonyms - somehow the words have separated, with some Americans using "swath" and others using "swathe" - but they have different definitions and anyone who uses SWATH when they should say SWATHE is a cunt
synaptopathy is a disease of the brain, spinal cord or peripheral nervous system relating to the dysfunction of synapses that can arise as a result of a mutation in a gene encoding a synaptic protein such as an ion channel, neurotransmitter receptor, or a protein involved in neurotransmitter release; or sometimes as a result of an autoantibody targeting a synaptic protein
Telos is a term used by philosopher Aristotle to refer to the full potential or inherent purpose or objective of a person or thing, similar to the notion of an 'end goal' or 'raison d'être' - can be understood as the "supreme end of man's endeavour"
tabula rasa (blank slate)
Formalised by philosopher John Locke (1632-1704) in n Essay Concerning Human Understanding, tabula rasa is the theory that individuals are born without built-in mental content (ideas) and therefore all knowledge (conceptual) comes from experience or perception - epistemological proponents of tabula rasa disagree with the doctrine of innatism, which holds that the mind is born already in possession of certain knowledge - instead preferring nuture over nature emphasis (without discounting nature exerting great influence over nurture) building on potentials that vary from person to person
extremely enthusiastic advocate (follower) of a particular dognma - origin early 14c into English from "member of a militant 1st century Jewish sect which fiercely resisted the Romans in Palestine" (late Latin zelotes, from Greek zēlōtēs "one who is a zealous follower") with extended sense of "a fanatical enthusiast" first recorded 1630s (earlier mid-15c this sense was zelator)


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There are currently 4 psychonauts in this directory
Alan Watts @ Zen In Our Daily Life (Bushido #1)

Philosopher and Psychonaut Alan Watts lecture on Zen in Our Daily Life as part of a series of introductions to his school of spiritual enlightenment @ YOUTUBE VIDEO on Intellectual Wave channel.

King Robbo

Psilocybin Studies: In Progress


All | A C D E I J K R S T
There are currently 12 philosophers in this directory
Arthur Schopenhauer
Arthur Schopenhauer (22-Feb-1788 to 21-Sept-1860) was a German philosopher. He is best known for his 1818 work The World as Will and Representation (expanded in 1844), which characterizes the phenomenal world as the product of a blind noumenal will. Building on the transcendental idealism of Immanuel Kant, Schopenhauer developed an atheistic metaphysical and ethical system that rejected the contemporaneous ideas of German idealism. He was among the first thinkers in Western philosophy to share and affirm significant tenets of Indian philosophy, such as asceticism, denial of the self, and the notion of the world-as-appearance. His work has been described as an exemplary manifestation of philosophical pessimism.

Arthur Schopenhauer Wikipedia

Confucius (551 to 479 BCE) was a Chinese philosopher and politician of the Spring and Autumn period who was traditionally considered the paragon of Chinese sages. Widely considered one of the most important and influential individuals in Chinese history, Confucius's teachings and philosophy formed the basis of much of East Asian culture and society, and continue to remain influential across China and East Asia today. His philosophical teachings, called Confucianism, emphasised personal and governmental morality, correctness of social relationships, justice, kindness, and sincerity.

Confucius Wikipedia

Daniel Dennett
Daniel Dennett (born 28-Mar-1942) is an American philosopher, writer, and cognitive scientist whose research centers on the philosophy of mind, philosophy of science, and philosophy of biology, particularly as those fields relate to evolutionary biology and cognitive science.

Daniel Dennett Wikipedia

David Hume
David Hume (7-May-1711 to 25-Aug-1776) was a Scottish Enlightenment philosopher, historian, economist, librarian and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism. Beginning with A Treatise of Human Nature (1739–40), Hume strove to create a naturalistic science of man that examined the psychological basis of human nature. Hume argued against the existence of innate ideas, positing that all human knowledge derives solely from experience. This places him with Francis Bacon, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and George Berkeley as a British Empiricist.

David Hume Wikipedia

Eckhart Tolle
Eckhart Tolle (born 16-Feb-1948) is a German-born pragma-philosopher, spiritual teacher and self-help author who resides in Canada. He is best known as the author of The Power of Now and A New Earth: Awakening to Your Life's Purpose.

Eckhart Tolle Wikipedia

Edmund Burke
Edmund Burke (12-Jan-1729 to 9-Jul-1797) was a Irish statesman, economist, and philosopher. Born in Dublin, Burke served as a member of parliament (MP) between 1766 and 1794 in the House of Commons of Great Britain with the Whig Party after moving to London in 1750. Burke was a proponent of underpinning virtues with manners in society and of the importance of religious institutions for the moral stability and good of the state.[3] These views were expressed in his A Vindication of Natural Society. He criticised the actions of the British government towards the American colonies, including its taxation policies. Burke also supported the rights of the colonists to resist metropolitan authority, although he opposed the attempt to achieve independence. He is remembered for his support for Catholic emancipation, the impeachment of Warren Hastings from the East India Company, and his staunch opposition to the French Revolution.

Edmund Burke Wikipedia

Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant (22-Apr-1724 to 12-Feb-1804) was a German philosopher and one of the central Enlightenment thinkers. Kant's comprehensive and systematic works in epistemology, metaphysics, ethics, and aesthetics have made him one of the most influential figures in modern Western philosophy. In his doctrine of transcendental idealism, Kant argued that space and time are mere forms of intuition which structure all experience, and therefore that while things-in-themselves exist and contribute to experience, they are nonetheless distinct from the objects of experience. From this it follows that the objects of experience are mere appearances, and that the nature of things as they are in themselves is consequently unknowable to us. In an attempt to counter the skepticism he found in the writings of philosopher David Hume, he wrote the Critique of Pure Reason (1781/1787), one of his most well-known works. In it, he developed his theory of experience to answer the question of whether synthetic a priori knowledge is possible, which would in turn make it possible to determine the limits of metaphysical inquiry. Kant drew a parallel to the Copernican revolution in his proposal that the objects of the senses must conform to our spatial and temporal forms of intuition, and that we can consequently have a priori cognition of the objects of the senses.

Immanuel Kant Wikipedia

Jean-Paul Sartre
Jean-Paul Sartre (21-Jun-1905 to 15-Apr-1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, screenwriter, political activist, biographer, and literary critic. He was one of the key figures in the philosophy of existentialism and phenomenology, and one of the leading figures in 20th-century French philosophy and Marxism.

Jean-Paul Sartre Wikipedia

Karl Popper
Karl Popper (28-Jul-1904 to 17-Sept-1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher, academic and social commentator. One of the 20th century's most influential philosophers of science, Popper is known for his rejection of the classical inductivist views on the scientific method in favour of empirical falsification. According to Popper, a theory in the empirical sciences can never be proven, but it can be falsified, meaning that it can (and should) be scrutinised with decisive experiments. Popper was opposed to the classical justificationist account of knowledge, which he replaced with critical rationalism, namely the first non-justificational philosophy of criticism in the history of philosophy. In political discourse, he is known for his vigorous defence of liberal democracy and the principles of social criticism that he believed made a flourishing open society possible. His political philosophy embraced ideas from major democratic political ideologies, including socialism/social democracy, libertarianism/classical liberalism and conservatism, and attempted to reconcile them.

Karl Popper Wikipedia

René Girard
René Girard (1923—2015) was a mainstream French philosopher whose areas of thought defy classification, spanning a wide variety of typically delimited humanities disciplines: Literary Criticism, Psychology, Anthropology, Sociology, History, Biblical Hermeneutics and Theology. Although he rarely calls himself a philosopher, many philosophical implications can be derived from his work. Girard’s work is above all concerned with Philosophical Anthropology (that is, ‘What is it to be human?’), and draws from many disciplinary perspectives. Over the years Girard developed a mimetic theory: human beings imitate each other, and this eventually gives rise to rivalries and violent conflicts. Such conflicts give rise to the scapegoat mechanism. Violence often follows. Girard's solution - like many French bourgeois - is ultimately, Christianity in the Des Essientes Catholic ideal. Girard’s lack of specific disciplinary affiliation slightly marginalises his work among contemporary academics. He's not regarded as part of the French philosophical pantheon like Derrida, Foucault, Deleuze, Lyotard, but his religiosity makes his work palatable to Christians and theologians ensuring a certain popularity in the lexicon of educated conservative discourse.
Simone de Beauvoir
Simone de Beauvoir (9-Jan-1908 to 14-Apr-1986) was a French writer, intellectual, existentialist philosopher, political activist, feminist, and social theorist. Though she did not consider herself a philosopher, and even though she was not considered one at the time of her death,[5] she had a significant influence on both feminist existentialism and feminist theory.

Simone de Beauvoir Wikipedia

Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine (9-Feb-1737 to 8-Jun-1809) was an English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorist, and revolutionary. He authored Common Sense (1776) and The American Crisis (1776–1783), the two most influential pamphlets at the start of the American Revolution, and helped inspire the colonists in 1776 to declare independence from Great Britain. His ideas reflected Enlightenment-era ideals of transnational human rights.

Thomas Paine Wikipedia


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There are currently 5 scientists in this directory
Carl Sagan
Carl Edward Sagan (9-Nov-1934 to 20-Dec-1996) was an American astronomer, planetary scientist, cosmologist, astrophysicist, astrobiologist, author, and science communicator. His best known scientific contribution is research on extraterrestrial life, including experimental demonstration of the production of amino acids from basic chemicals by radiation. Sagan assembled the first physical messages sent into space, the Pioneer plaque and the Voyager Golden Record, universal messages that could potentially be understood by any extraterrestrial intelligence that might find them. Sagan argued the hypothesis, accepted since, that the high surface temperatures of Venus can be attributed to and calculated using the greenhouse effect.
Galileo Galilei
Galileo di Vincenzo Bonaiuti de' Galilei (15-Feb-1564 to 8-Jan-1642) was an astronomer, physicist and engineer, sometimes described as a polymath, from Pisa, in modern-day Italy. Galileo has been called the "father of observational astronomy", the "father of modern physics", the "father of the scientific method", and the "father of modern science"
Isaac Newton
Sir Isaac Newton (4-Jan-1643 to 31-Mar-1727) was an English mathematician, physicist, astronomer, theologian, and author who is widely recognised as one of the greatest mathematicians, physicists, and most influential scientists of all time. He was a key figure in the philosophical revolution known as the Enlightenment.

Isaac Newton Wikipedia

Oliver Sacks
Oliver Wolf Sacks (9 July 1933 – 30 August 2015) was a British neurologist, naturalist, historian of science, and writer. He was educated at Oxford, later moving to the USA and, after a fellowship at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Sacks served as neurologist at Beth Abraham Hospital's chronic-care facility in the Bronx, where he worked with a group of survivors of the 1920s sleeping sickness encephalitis lethargica, who had been unable to move on their own for decades. His treatment of those patients became the basis of his 1973 book Awakenings. His numerous other best-selling books were mostly collections of case studies of people, including himself, with neurological disorders. He also published hundreds of articles (both peer-reviewed scientific articles and articles for a general audience), not only about neurological disorders but also insightful book reviews and articles about the history of science, natural history, and nature. His writings have been featured in a wide range of media; The New York Times called him a "poet laureate of contemporary medicine," and "one of the great clinical writers of the 20th century".   Oliver Sacks's books include a wealth of narrative detail about his experiences with his patients and his own experiences, and how patients and he coped with their conditions, often illuminating how the normal brain deals with perception, memory, and individuality. He once stated that the brain is the "most incredible thing in the universe".

Oliver Sacks Wikipedia

Richard Dawkins

Richard Dawkins (26-Mar-1941) is a British evolutionary biologist and author. He is an emeritus fellow of New College, Oxford and was Professor for Public Understanding of Science in the University of Oxford from 1995 to 2008. An atheist, he is well known for his criticism of creationism and intelligent design. Dawkins first came to prominence with his 1976 book The Selfish Gene, which popularised the gene-centred view of evolution and introduced the term meme. With his book The Extended Phenotype (1982), he introduced into evolutionary biology the influential concept that the phenotypic effects of a gene are not necessarily limited to an organism's body, but can stretch far into the environment. In 2006, he founded the Richard Dawkins Foundation for Reason and Science.