Table of Contents


All |
50 cryptosphere entries

1 / 50   Architecture: Blockchain Web3 DAO

2 / 50   Architecture: Decentralized Data

3 / 50   Architecture: Decentralized Governance

4 / 50   Bitcoin: Crypto Utopia

  • Twitter @APompliano: US Government Has More Bitcoin Than Any Other Country In The World (8-Feb-2022)
  • BTC Holdings: Grayscale Bitcoin Trust $27.93B - MicroStrategy $5.43B - US Govt $4.08B - Ukraine $2.01B - Tesla $1.86B - Purpose Bitcoin $1.34B
  • US Government Now Holds Over $4 Billion In Bitcoin (9-Feb-2022)
  • Who Owns All The Bitcoin?
  • Bitcoin Paradise? Briton Creates Crypto Utopia in South Pacific (12-Feb-2022)
  • El Salvador Adopts Bitcoin As Legal Tender (16-Jun-2021)
  • Bitcoin Magazine: El Salvador: One Small Step For Bitcoin
  • PwC: El Salvador - A Meaningful Test For Bitcoin (2022)
  • Search Google/Duckduckgo for "El Salvador Bitcoin" To Peruse Neoliberal Bullshit Spigot Doing IMF/WEF/fiatworld Bidding: Trashing El Salvador and BTC
  • cryptosphere

    5 / 50   Bitcoin: Development - ETH Proof-Of-Stake - Scalability

    6 / 50   Bitcoin: Lightning Network

  • Lightning Network | LN Community Blog | LN Daemon
  • Github: LN Trampoline Routing | LN Statistics
  • What Is The Purpose Of The Lightning Network For Bitcoin?
  • Lightning Network Routing: Privacy and Efficiency In A Positive Sum Game (11-Jul-2019)
  • The Future Of Bitcoin | Understanding Lightning Network Using An Abacus (25-May-2018)
  • Lightning Network Privacy - Current Considerations (10-May-2021)
  • What Is Bitcoin's Lightning Network? (9-Dec-2019)
  • Atomic Multi Path (AMP) Help Bitcoin Become Formidable Payment Instrument
  • LN: Payment Channels | LN: HTLC and Payment Routing
  • AMP: Atomic Multi-Path Payments over Lightning (Feb-2018)
  • Bitcoin's Lightning Network and Innovative Business Models (19-Dec-2018)
  • Trampoline Nodes Explained -Lightning Innovation (5-Aug-2020)
  • YouTube: Understanding Trampoline Nodes on Lightning (Christian Decker)
  • YouTube: Presentation Including Graphics Showcasing Trampoline Nodes (Bastien Teinturier)
  • Lightning Apps and the Emerging Developer Ecosystem on LND (5-Jul-2017)
  • Lightning User Experience: A Day in the Life of Carol (2-May-2018)
  • Chaos–order transition in foraging behavior of ants (27-May-2014)
  • Ant Routing Algorithm For The Lightning Network (11-Aug-2018)
  • Lightning Network Crosses 100 Nodes, SegWit Nears 20% Dominance (2018)
  • Liquidity Is A Lightning Network (26-Feb-2022) | Breez Technology
  • Sources Of Centralization On Lightning And Why They Matter (26-Feb-2020)
  • @asatarbair: Liquidity Is The Most Bullshit Term In The Economics Lexicon (2020)
  • cryptosphere

    7 / 50   Bitcoin: Nodes, Fees and Mining

    8 / 50   Blockchain: Applications - Trust

    9 / 50   Blockchain: Community, Reputation and E-Voting

    10 / 50   Blockchain: Decentralized Trust

    11 / 50   Blockchain: Distributed Consensus

    12 / 50   Blockchain: Elastos

    13 / 50   Blockchain: Holochain

    14 / 50   Blockchain: IOTA

    15 / 50   Blockchain: Multimedia - DRM - Privacy

    16 / 50   Blockchains: Algorand

    17 / 50   Blockchains: Polkadot - zkRollups - Cosmos

    18 / 50   Cryptosphere: Articles

    19 / 50   Cryptosphere: Blags

    20 / 50   Cryptosphere: Corporate Data Revenue

    21 / 50   Cryptosphere: Cybersecurity

    22 / 50   Cryptosphere: Decentralized Communication


    23 / 50   Cryptosphere: Jargon Buster

    24 / 50   Cryptosphere: LBRY - Rokfin - Odysee

    25 / 50   Cryptosphere: Smart Contracts

    26 / 50   Cryptosphere: Specification Links

    27 / 50   Cryptosphere: Tools

    28 / 50   Cryptosphere: White Papers

    29 / 50   Cypherpunk Privacy

    30 / 50   DAO Blockchain: Liberal Radicalism

    31 / 50   Decentralization: Your Identity and Your Data

    32 / 50   Decentralized Media Content

    33 / 50   Decentralized: LiberaPay

    34 / 50   Ethereum - Vitalik Buterin

    35 / 50   Fediverse: Hive Blockchain - PeakD - Pleroma

    36 / 50   Fediverse: Mastodon

  • Gitlab: Mastodon-Bot
  • cryptosphere

    37 / 50   Fediverse: Overview, Statistics and Orgs

    38 / 50   Fediverse: Peertube

    39 / 50   Impervious

    40 / 50   Open Source Collective

    41 / 50   Protocols: Matrix

    42 / 50   Protocols: Routing - Channels

    43 / 50   Protocols: WebRTC | BitTorrent | WebTorrent

    44 / 50   Snowdrift.COOP

    45 / 50   Tokens: Cardano and ADA

    46 / 50   Tokens: Gather

    47 / 50   Tokens: NANO

    48 / 50   Tokens: Steem - Steemit

    49 / 50   Tokens: Theta

    50 / 50   WEB3: Professional Media Production


    All |
    15 consensus network entries


    1 / 15   Decentralization: Most Important Aspect Of Blockchain

    Four tiers. C, B, A and S. Let’s start with C-Tier, the most centralized blockchains, and go through to A-Tier and S-Tier the most decentralized blockchains.

    C-Tier - Blockchains with Terrible or No Decentralization
    1. NEO, which is only run by 7 nodes of which 5 are owned by NEO, and it is permissioned and non-trustless
    2. Icon, which is run by 6 nodes and it is permissioned and non-trustless
    3. WTC, which is run by 6 nodes and it is permissioned and non-trustless
    4. EOS, which is run by 21 nodes and is permissioned and non-trustless
    5. Tron, originally a PoS blockchain, became the worst version of itself. If they simply stayed a classic PoS where around 100 entities hold 51% of the voting power and would have been happy with 1,500 TPS that a classic PoS blockchain can do, then it would be a top 10 blockchain in terms of decentralization and scalability. However, no they had to make the mistake that all the not so intelligent blockchain leader make. Sacrificing all of their decentralization for some more scalability. Tron is governed by 27 super representatives, which opens a myriad of attack vectors including social engineering, phising, blackmail, coercion and cartel formation, just like in EOS. Also, all super representatives have to identify themselves, this makes it extremely easy to attack them with all the above mentioned attack vectors. Furthermore, more than 51% of the token supply are within 3 entities. The first 3 entities here TRON BlockChain Explorer already have 20% and then the Tron foundation has locked up 33% of the token supply in 1,000 addresses that they control, adding up to 53% of the tokens controlled by 4 entities. These attacks are already starting to happen. Tron is already riddled with vote buying. Read more here: The Trials of Tron
    6. Ark, which is run by 51 nodes and is permissioned and non-trustless
    7. Lisk, which is run by 101 nodes and is permissioned and non-trustless
    8. VeChain with their Proof of Authority algorithm, which is heavily permissioned and non-trustless
    9. Nuls with their Proof of Credits algorithm, which is permissioned and non-trustless
    B-Tier - Blockchains with Mediocre Decentralization
    1. Bitcoin, Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash, Litecoin, Dogecoin, Monero, Verge because 51% of their hashing power is controlled by 2 entities, Bitmain and another pool. However, this provides a bit more decentralization than Masternodes, since it is not completely centralized with mining pools. However, they are permissionless and trustless.
    2. Dash, which is controlled by 3 mining pools, though with its 5,000 Masternodes, it’s slightly better than generic PoW coins.
    3. Digibyte is a PoW blockchain that is controlled by 5 mining pools. Additionally, it has several mining algorithms, which is better than just one. This puts it slightly ahead of all other PoW coins. However, it still suffers from mining pool centralization and doesn’t seem to offer any solution for that.
    4. Hashgraph, which is trustless, but also permissioned, because its governance is dictated by a board of 39 people and they decide what dapps and structures will be allowed or not based on their interest.
    5. Stellar, which is permissionless, though non-trustless, and 80% of the supply is owned by Stellar, which puts 1 entity in control while it has 60 known nodes and 250 total nodes. However, those nodes are put into quorum slices, so there are probably only around 10 quorum slices that vote. If anyone has information on that let me know, I didn’t find more info on that.
    6. XRP, which is run by 120 validating nodes and which is permissionless, but not trustless. Furthermore, 52% of the supply is locked up by Ripple, which puts 1 entity in control. Finally, only only 6 accounts own more than 51% of the circulating supply again. However, with XRP holding funds doesn’t add to control, so it’s not that important. XRP gets overstated as a decentralized blockchain, often because of this scam article, The Inherently Decentralized Nature of XRP Ledger | Ripple, but be wary: XRP is in fact the 4th most centralized blockchain.
    A-Tier - Blockchains with OK Decentralization
    1. Nano, which is controlled by 6 entities, which have more than 51% Nanode · Representatives, but which is trustless and permissionless. Another flaw with Nano is that it doesn’t have dapps or smart contracts.
    2. Cardano, which is controlled by 70 nodes and possibly 20 entities. Rich List - Cardano Block Explorer. Cardano is also permissionless and trustless
    3. Decred with their hybrid PoW/PoS consensus algorithm that is also permissionless and trustless
    S-Tier - Blockchains with Excellent Decentralization All of the S-Tier Blockchains are permissionless and trustless.
    1. Tezos, which has liquid dPoS and constantly changes voting nodes
    2. IOTA, which is controlled by millions of entities, but only at scale. Any new users will add a new node and vote and infinitely increase decentralization for each new node.
    3. Holochain, which is built to be controlled by millions of entities. Any new users will add a new node and vote and infinitely increase decentralization for each new node.
    4. Quarkchain, which uses Sharding for consensus, which is excellent decentralization, excellent scalability and also permissionless and trustless.
    5. Zilliqa, which uses Sharding for consensus, which is excellent decentralization, excellent scalability and also permissionless and trustless.
    6. Elastos, which is built to be controlled to by millions of entities, depending on the number of side-chains and number of nodes in those chains and infinitely increase decentralization for each new node.
    Conclusion The C-Tier blockchains are pretty much worthless, because they suffer from the worst centralization. There is no point to use their blockchain and they could also use a server for their transaction with no difference in security. Tron, Stellar and XRP top the tier as they have one entity in control. The B-Tier blockchains are mediocre. Definitely not truly decentralized. The A-Tier blockchains have decent decentralization, but they still have only 50 entities that control them. What makes them A-Tier is that they are permissionless and trustless. If you are permissioned or non-trustless, you can never be A-Tier. The S-Tier blockchains have outstanding decentralization. They are designed to be controlled by at least millions of nodes and they are obviously also completely permissionless and trustless. If you are permissioned or non-trustless, you can never be S-Tier. Tezos, IOTA (at scale), Holochain, Elastos are the current surveyed blockchains with outstanding decentralization. However, Tezos completely missed also focusing on scalability. That’s why they can only do 300 TPS, while IOTA, Holochain and Elastos can do millions to billions of TPS.
    consensus networks

    2 / 15   Decentralized Social Media: Blockchain - Chat - Audio - Video


    3 / 15   Matrix: Secure Decentralized Network Ecosystem

  • MATRIX: An Open Network for Secure, Decentralized Communication
  • Matrix: Decentralisation Ecosystem Review (2021)
  • | Dendrite | Synapse
  • Element Mobile Guide
  • Matrix Docs: Feedbot
  • ActivityPub and Matrix for Vircadia (11-Aug-2020)
  • What Is the Matrix Protocol and How Does It Work? (27-Oct-2021)
  • Element | {GitHub:element-web} | Secure Communities | [Wikipedia]

  • | dendrite synapse discourse commune construct halfshot conduit
  • Matrix: latest specification on
  • Discourse: Discourse - Open-Source Discussion Platform (Matrix protocol)
  • Commune: communications suite built on top of matrix. Commune aims to bring together chat, discussions, email and other interactive apps into a single matrix client
  • Conduit: simple, fast and reliable chat server powered by Matrix
  • Dendrite: second-generation Matrix homeserver written in Go! (not active)
  • Reddit: Synapse vs dendrite for personal matrix server?
  • Synapse: Matrix homeserver written in Python 3 | Synapse Docs | Synapse Install Docs
  • HalfShot: Matrix - Discord Bridge
  • Discord Matrix Bridge bot
  • Matrix-Discord Puppet bot
  • Construct: Matrix Bridge
  • Erlend Sogge Heggen@erlend_sh - Discourse and Commune Developer | Matrix Live YouTube: What if Discord and Discourse merged on Matrix?
  • Is MATRIX a useful Protocol for Messengers? (17-May-2020)
  • Open Source: Bundeswehr testet Chat-App auf Basis von Matrix
  • Matrix and Riot Confirmed As Basis For France Secure Instant Messenger App (26-Apr-2018)
  • Element, an open-source privacy friendly E2E discord replacement (2020)

    consensus networks


    4 / 15   Network Protocols: Distributions and Syndication

    5 / 15   Networks: Fediverse

  • Lemmy: Link Aggregator for Fediverse (Dec 2020) | Apps (iOS, Android, Linux, OSX, Windows) | {GitHub:lemmy}
  • Reddit: Developers Behind Lemmi.ML - AMA (2020)

    1. YouTube ➝ Invidious
    2. Google ➝ Searx
    3. Reddit ➝ Libreddit
    4. Office ➝ HedgeDoc
    5. Twitter ➝ Nitter
    6. Instagram ➝ Bibliogram
    7. Facebook ➝ Mastodon
    8. Live ➝ Proton Mail
    9. Mail ➝ Tutanota
    10. Wikipedia ➝ Wikiless
    11. PasteBin ➝ PrivateBin
    12. MediaFire ➝ FileBin
    13. Google Translate ➝ Lingva Translate
    14. DeepL Translate ➝ Libre Translate
    15. SpeedTest ➝ LibreSpeed
    16. Mega ➝ Crypt
    17. Play Market ➝ F-Droid
    18. Zoom ➝ Jisti
    19. Microsoft ➝ FSF
    20. RedHat ➝ NOsystemd
    21. Debian ➝ Devuan
    22. Arch Linux ➝ Artix Linux
    consensus networks


    6 / 15   Protocols: ActivityPub

    7 / 15   Protocols: Messaging - ICMP

    8 / 15   Protocols: TCP/IP Model - F2F


    9 / 15   Security: Privacy Surveillance Anonymity

    10 / 15   Social Media: Minds


    11 / 15   Tor Network: Articles

    12 / 15   Tor Network: Onion Routing

  • Tor Network | Tor Project: History
  • "Tor works by bouncing connections from your computer to destinations (such as through a series of intermediate computers, or relays; and back to you in the same way. Tor network understands these addresses by looking up their corresponding public keys and introduction points from a distributed hash table within the network. It can route data to and from Onion services, even those hosted behind firewalls or network address translators (NAT), while preserving the anonymity of both parties. Tor is necessary to access these Onion services.

  • Onion Router Spec | History | Challenges | Onion Tor Model PDF

  • consensus networks

    13 / 15   Tor Network: Overview

    Tor Relays: Entry - Middle - Exit
    1. Entry/Guard Relay - This is the entry point to the Tor network. Relays are selected to serve as guard relays after being around for a while, as well as having shown to be stable and having high bandwidth.
    2. Middle Relay - Middle relays are exactly that - middle nodes used to transport traffic from the guard relay to the exit relay. This prevents the guard and exit relay from knowing each other.
    3. Exit Relay - These relays are the exit point at the edge of the Tor network. These relays send traffic to the final destination intended by the client.
    Tor Network: Bridges

    Two vulnerabilities in the Tor Network are at entry and exit. Entry by user into Tor and exit from Tor at exit node to destination site/peer. Bad guy could download the list of Tor exit nodes then force a destination site to block all traffic from those nodes. Worse, the bad guy could download the list of entry nodes and force them to block a user, thereby blocking all sites by blocking entry into Tor Network at source. The current solution to these issues is BRIDGES.

  • BRIDGES are simply unpublished frequently changing ENTRY RELAYS
  • Users on censored networks use BRIDGES to access the Tor network bypassing targeted restrictions
  • All users accessing Tor receive a small list of bridges (via BridgeDB) to connect to the rest of Tor Network unrestricted

  • Tor Network: Consensus

    Tor Relays: Directory Authority (DA)

    TEN authoritative nodes on Tor are run by long-time trusted volunteers distributed around the world. These nodes are Directory Authorities (DA) and they maintain the status of the entire Tor network. DA nodes distribute an ever-updated master list of all known active relays.

    Directory Authorities (DAs) update Consensus every hour by a vote:

    1. Each DA compiles a list of all known relays
    2. Each DA then computes the other needed data, such as relay flags, bandwidth weights, and more
    3. DA then submits this data as a “status-vote” to all the other authorities
    4. DA next will go get any other votes it is missing from the other authorities
    5. All the parameters, relay information, etc. from each vote are combined or computed and then signed by each DA
    6. Signature is then posted to the other DA’s
    7. There should be a majority of the DA’s that agree on the data, validating the new consensus
    8. The consensus is then published by each DA
  • What Happens If Tor Directory Authorities Are Seized? (19-Dec-2014)

  • Tor Relays: List of DA Nodes

    NINE of the DA nodes maintain the master list of active relays, while ONE DA (Tonga) maintains the list of bridges

  • Status of all the Tor relays is maintained in a living document called the CONSENSUS
  • Tor DA Relay Distribution Map
    Tor Relays: Secure Trust
  • How do we know we can actually trust relays? We don’t have to! Tor is designed to put as little trust in relays as possible. Onion Routing is used as a secure (encrypted) way of routing what you send and receive - and what a destination peer/site receives and sends - using layers of encryption that protect both of you AND the relays in between:
    1. You encrypt the original sent data so only exit relay can decrypt
    2. Your "1" encrypted data is then encrypted again so only middle relay(s) can decrypt
    3. The "2" encrypted data of "1" is encrypted again so only guard relay can decrypt"

    consensus networks

    14 / 15   Tor Network: Web2 Web3 DApps


    15 / 15   Vitalik Buterin

  • Vitalik Buterin Blog | VitaDAO | Ethereum DAO
  • Verkle (18-Jun-2021) | Sharding (7-Apr-2021) | Endgame (6-Dec-2021)
  • consensus networks







    All |
    150 cryptosphere glossary entries


    1 / 150   51% Attack

    51% Attack refers to a situation where a majority of blockchain miners make an attack on the rest of nodes, by changing/ stopping transactions, taking over mining operations, or double spending coins.
    crypto blockchain glossary


    2 / 150   Actor

    An actor in the blockchain industry basically refers to any entity with the capabilities for participating in a specific network or an action.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    3 / 150   Address

    The address in terms of blockchain generally refers to the public address related to a private key. The addresses work as the identity of an actor or an account. In most cases, the addresses are available in hexadecimal notations.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    4 / 150   Airdrop

    Airdrop is a method for token distribution that helps in sending tokens or cryptocurrency to wallet addresses. Airdrops are also utilized in the case of marketing purposes for simple tasks such as app downloads and reshares, and referrals.


    crypto blockchain glossary

    5 / 150   Altcoin

    The digital currency alternatives for Bitcoin are called altcoin, with the majority of altcoins being forks of Bitcoin, with few changes.READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    6 / 150   Anti-Money Laundering (AML)

    Anti-money laundering refers to the collection of international laws implemented for reducing the possibilities of money laundering through cryptocurrencies.
    crypto blockchain glossary

    7 / 150   Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC)

    Application-Specific Integrated Circuit or ASIC is basically a certain type of computer processing chip with the capabilities to perform a specific function. ASIC relies on specialisation for offering better efficiency and cost-effectiveness in comparison to general computer processors. ASIC boards are suitable additions in the blockchain industry for performing SHA256 hashing that is needed for Proof-of-Work mechanisms.
    crypto blockchain glossary


    8 / 150   Banking Secrecy Act (BSA)

    Banking Secrecy Act is a US legislation passed in 1970, which implies that financial institutions must support government agencies in detection and prevention of money laundering activities. BSA requirements focus on record-keeping for all customers, decision on the type of monetary instruments eligible for purchase or exchange, and mandatory reporting of specific types of activities.
    crypto blockchain glossary

    9 / 150   Bitcoin

    Bitcoin also referred to as BTC, is a decentralized blockchain tailored particularly for transaction of tokens between accounts. The most important highlight of Bitcoin is that it is the first blockchain-based cryptocurrency. Bitcoin features a Proof-of-Work or PoW consensus algorithm and leverages Unspent Transaction Outputs (UTXOs) for storing data.  READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    10 / 150   Block

    Block is the most fundamental component in the structure of a blockchain and serves as the single section comprising discrete data. The blocks generally include a list of actions or transactions that should be performed during data processing in the block.
    crypto blockchain glossary

    11 / 150   Block (Canonical)

    A canonical block is one that has been incorporated in the primary blockchain. The canonical block is referenced either directly or indirectly by future blocks. Non-canonical blocks which might have validity could be rejected in favour of canonical blocks.
    crypto blockchain glossary

    12 / 150   Block (Genesis)

    The first block in a blockchain structure is known as the genesis block. The block height for the genesis block is zero. Most important of all, all the other blocks in the blockchain are linked intrinsically to the genesis block. It is possible to configure genesis blocks for creating a fork of a chain of purposes, including specification of different block parameters or pre-loading accounts with tokens for test networks.
    crypto blockchain glossary

    13 / 150   Block Depth

    Block depth refers to the position index of a block in the blockchain with respect to the most recently added block. For example, a block that is 2 blocks before the last added block will have a block depth of 2.
    crypto blockchain glossary

    14 / 150   Block Explorer

    Block explorer is the software or GUI graphical user interface, which helps users in reading and analysing data on a blockchain.
    crypto blockchain glossary

    15 / 150   Block Height

    Block height is the position index of a block with respect to the genesis block. For example, the second block added to a chain will have a block height of 2.
    crypto blockchain glossary

    16 / 150   Block Reward

    Blockchains with native cryptocurrency allow miners to allocate a specific number of tokens for generating spontaneously and sending to desired address. The reward compensates for the miner’s support in building a block and the network alongside incentivising other miners for joining the network.
    crypto blockchain glossary

    17 / 150   Blockchain

    Blockchain is an innovative method for data storage in discrete sections in the form of blocks, which are linked to each other. It is basically a consensus digital ledger including digitally recorded data in different sections such as blocks. Every block is related to the next block through a cryptographic signature. Blockchains could provide criteria for the type of data eligible for storage on the block and invalid data, which should be rejected. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    18 / 150   Blockchain 1.0

    The first generation of blockchain technology, known as Blockchain 1.0, emphasised particularly executing simple token transactions. The chains in Blockchain 1.0 are restricted in terms of scope and ability.
    crypto blockchain glossary

    19 / 150   Blockchain 2.0

    The second generation of blockchain technology, i.e., Blockchain 2.0, focused on enabling the functionalities of smart contracts and generalised processing. The chains in Blockchain 2.0 are developed with Turing-complete programming languages with a broad range of capabilities, other than the basic peer-to-peer (P2P) value exchange.
    crypto blockchain glossary

    20 / 150   Blockchain 3.0

    The new generation of blockchain technology presently emphasises achieving better interoperability and scalability with blockchain applications. Although Blockchain 3.0 does not have any frontrunners now, the chains under development have the potential for improving the use of smart contracts.
    crypto blockchain glossary

    21 / 150   Bug Bounty

    Bug Bounty basically refers to a reward paid for completing specific tasks such as identification of code vulnerabilities, design work, social impact, content creation, research, and more.
    crypto blockchain glossary

    22 / 150   Byzantine Fault Tolerance

    Byzantine Fault Tolerance basically refers to the ability of the network to reach consensus properly at any given time while also assuming that no more than one-third of the network actors are malicious.
    crypto blockchain glossary


    23 / 150   CeDeFi

    Interpreted as the combination of CeFi and DeFi, CeDeFi is a hybrid centralized decentralized system. It is basically a new approach that aims to use the best of DeFi and CeFi for modernizing conventional financial management. The world’s leading crypto exchange platform, Binance, has started the DeCeFi movement with their Binance Smart Chain. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    24 / 150   CeFi

    CeFi or centralized finance refers to a structured service for controlling all orders through one central exchange without any competing parties. CeFi basically aims at ensuring fair trades, improving buying and selling processes alongside boosting additional transactions. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    25 / 150   Central Bank Digital Currency (CBDC)

    CBDC refers to the proposals that involve digital currency, issued by a central bank. Although the term is not well-defined, it represents a new form of central bank money. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    26 / 150   Certificate Authority (CA)

    Certificate Authority or CA refers to a centralised authority that helps in correlating identities with a public-private key pair in private key infrastructures.
    crypto blockchain glossary

    27 / 150   Client

    Client in the world of blockchain refers to software with the capabilities for accessing a blockchain through a local computer. A client would generally feature a cryptocurrency software wallet and support in processing transactions.
    crypto blockchain glossary

    28 / 150   Closed Source

    The closed source software points out proprietary software featuring source code that is not accessible to the public. Users can access the compiled binaries in the form of an executable program. However, the binaries are not human-readable, and users other than the original software developer cannot access them for modifications.
    crypto blockchain glossary

    29 / 150   Coin

    Coin in terms of blockchain is basically a representation of digital asset value generated through personal, independent blockchain.
    crypto blockchain glossary

    30 / 150   Coinbase (Company)

    Coinbase is a US-based cryptocurrency brokerage platform, which is the largest exchange in terms of transaction volume and customer base. In comparison to other exchanges, Coinbase features a small count of cryptocurrency offerings. It provides only a specific few dozen tradable cryptocurrencies out of all the available options in the ecosystem.
    crypto blockchain glossary

    31 / 150   Coinbase (Mining)

    Coinbase, in the context of mining, is associated directly with a block. The coinbase of a block points out to the address where block rewards are delivered.
    crypto blockchain glossary

    32 / 150   Cold Wallet

    The cold wallet or cold storage in blockchain points out to an offline wallet that is not connected to the internet ever. The cold wallets are helpful in safeguarding cryptocurrencies from online hacking attacks.
    crypto blockchain glossary

    33 / 150   Command-Line Interface (CLI)

    CLI or Command-Line Interface is a text-based user interface that can offer the core functionalities alongside access to system resources in a better way than GUIs. However, CLI generally lacks the benefits of usability. Therefore, CLI is more suitable for developers in comparison to the average users.
    crypto blockchain glossary

    34 / 150   Confirmation

    Confirmation in the world of blockchain refers to the process of determining the extent of the immutability of the information in a blockchain. In some cases, confirmations refer to the number of nodes accepted in a transaction, the number of transactions referencing the confirmation, or the number of blocks prior to it. A general transaction in Bitcoin features five confirmations upon producing five blocks after the block containing a specific transaction.
    crypto blockchain glossary

    35 / 150   Consensus

    Consensus is an important process in the blockchain industry that is essential for helping different sections of a network in determining a single source of truth. Blockchain networks depend on consensus algorithms for reaching an agreement in terms of the blogs eligible for addition to the chain and the validity of nodes. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    36 / 150   Consortium

    Consortium refers to the private blockchain network operated by a company or a group of agencies. Consortium chains generally management information that is not fit for public release albeit needs to be communicated immutably between two concerned parties. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    37 / 150   Corda

    Corda is basically an open-source blockchain project tailored for business functions. It helps in developing interoperable blockchain networks with formidable indications for conducting transactions in complete privacy. Corda features smart contract technology for enabling businesses to complete direct transactions with better value. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    38 / 150   Crypto Trading Core

    39 / 150   Cryptocurrency

    Cryptocurrency refers to currencies that are digitally distributed and traded with establishing proof of ownership through cryptographic methods. For instance, it is not possible to transfer Ether from an account without any control over the private key related to the concerned account. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    40 / 150   Cryptography

    Cryptography is the technique of combining mathematical and logical problem-solving skills for encryption or decryption of encoded messages. Computer cryptography depends considerably on mathematical proofs alongside the difficulty of computation for certain mathematical problems.
    crypto blockchain glossary

    41 / 150   Currency

    In most specific terms, money in any form, when used in circulation as a medium of exchange is known as currency. Every country has its own currency, like the US dollar is the currency of the USA.
    crypto blockchain glossary


    42 / 150   DApp

    DApp or decentralized apps are similar in terms of operations with regular web applications. On the other hand, they can retrieve information about their state and data from specific or multiple blockchain networks. You wouldn’t need a central web server for the functioning of DApps. In addition, DApps communicate with each other through the messaging protocol used by blockchain networks connected to them. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    43 / 150   DeCeFi

    DeCeFi or decentralized CeFi is basically a new approach that aims to use the best of DeFi and CeFi for modernizing conventional financial management. The world’s leading crypto exchange platform, Binance, has started the DeCeFi movement with their Binance Smart Chain.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    44 / 150   Decentralization

    Decentralized points out the shift of data, actions, and other associated interests from a single actor towards distribution throughout all actors.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    45 / 150   Decentralized Autonomous Organization (DAO)

    A decentralized Autonomous Organization or DAO points out a company or group of like-minded people operating on the basis of rules established in a smart contract. DAOs are generally helpful for transforming business logic to software logic documented on a blockchain. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    46 / 150   DeFi or Decentralized Finance

    Decentralized finance or DeFi is a paradigm shift in the economy powered by decentralization, especially in blockchain networks. DeFi points out the radical transition from centralized and closed financial systems to universally accessible economies. DeFi relies on open protocols with the assurance of programmability, ease of composition, and interoperability. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    47 / 150   Digital Identity

    Digital identity is basically an online identity or identity on a network adopted by an organization, individual, or electronic device. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    48 / 150   Digital Signature

    Digital signature is a code created through public-key encryption followed by being attached to electronically transmitted documents for verifying the contents of the document.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    49 / 150   Directed Acyclic Graph

    Directed Acyclic Graph or DAG is a directed graph structure, such as a flow chart, without any recursive routes. DAGs are applicable in the blockchain industry primarily for creating links between blocks, data storage structures, and transactions. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    50 / 150   Distributed Ledger

    Distributed ledger is the database spread throughout various sites, institutions, and countries with sequential storage of records in a continuous manner. The data in distributed ledger could be permissioned or unpermissioned, depending on the control privileges for viewership of the data. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    51 / 150   Double Spend Attack

    Double-spend attacks basically refer to malicious attempts for convincing two different parties about the validity of one of two conflicting transactions. In such cases, both transactions can appear valid, although with setbacks when combined together. Blockchain reorganizations such as natural forks imply that verification of the addition of a transaction in a block does not refer to its immutability. Transactions will be immutable only after reaching a certain chain depth where chain reorganization cannot affect them. It is possible to reduce double-spend attacks by waiting to confirm a transaction by the network.

    crypto blockchain glossary


    52 / 150   EOS.IO

    EOS basically points out the Blockchain 3.0 chain, tailored specifically for emphasizing transaction throughput. It leverages the web assembly or WASM for smart contracts and the delegated proof-of-stake or DPoS consensus mechanism. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    53 / 150   ERC20 Token Standard

    ERC refers to Ethereum Request for Comment and is associated with an assignment number related to the standard. ERC20 is a technical standard for smart contracts implemented by the majority of Ethereum tokens. The ERC20 standard lists certain rules which specify requirements that a token should fulfill for maintaining compliance and functioning in the Ethereum network. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    54 / 150   Ether

    Ether, also known as ETH, is the base cryptocurrency tailored for the Ethereum blockchain network. Ether basically serves as the currency for paying transaction fees to miners. Most important of all, it is stored in terms of individual accounts rather than in the form of Unspent Transaction Outputs or UTXOs. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    55 / 150   Ethereum

    Ethereum is one of the prominent examples of the decentralized chain in Blockchain 2.0. As a matter of fact, it will be the first major smart contract platform that enjoys considerable support of Fortune 500 companies through the Ethereum Enterprise Alliance or EEA. Ethereum presently depends on a Proof-of-Work or PoW consensus algorithm. However, future modifications in the protocol can imply the need for updating to a Proof-of-Stake or PoS algorithm for better scalability. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    56 / 150   Ethereum Enterprise Alliance

    The Ethereum Enterprise Alliance or EEA refers to a group of medium to large businesses with a public commitment to support Ethereum development and creating applications tailored for the protocol. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    57 / 150   Ethereum Improvement Proposals (EIP)

    Ethereum Improvement Proposals or EIPs provide a description of standards for the Ethereum platform, such as contract standards, core protocol specifications, and client APIs.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    58 / 150   Ethereum Virtual Machine

    Ethereum Virtual Machine is a simulated state machine that depends on eWASM bytecode for processing transactions. In addition, it can also facilitate opportunities for performing state transitions for the Ethereum blockchain. The state of the EVM will be similar on all nodes in the network, with the impossibility of generating different states by using the same inputs.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    59 / 150   EWASM

    EWASM refers to the web assembly or WASM version implemented by the Ethereum Virtual Machine for ensuring improved functionalities in blockchains.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    60 / 150   Exchange

    A cryptocurrency exchange is commonly evident in the world of blockchain, especially as a service for trading cryptocurrency tokens for fiat or other tokens. Exchanges are subject to intensive regulations in the US, the European Union, and eastern Asia.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    61 / 150   Exchange (Decentralized)

    Decentralized exchange basically refers to a cryptocurrency exchange hosted completely through a decentralized app on a specific blockchain. Decentralized exchanges generally don’t allow the conversion of cryptocurrency to fiat. Furthermore, decentralized exchanges also present more difficulties in comparison to standard exchanges for regulations and sanctions.

    crypto blockchain glossary


    62 / 150   Fiat

    Fiat refers to a nationally adopted currency that has the backing of the government. For example, the US Dollar and Euro are examples of fiat currencies. Fiat currencies are generally favorable due to their traditional applications and legal status.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    63 / 150   Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN)

    FINCEN is the U.S. federal agency that investigates and prosecutes finance-related crimes, like money laundering. The rules and regulations of FinCEN cover many points related to the use of cryptocurrency.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    64 / 150   Fintech

    Fintech word is a combination of two terms finance and technology. The combined term Fintech refers to a business that involves the use of technology for the automation or enhancement of financial services and processes.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    65 / 150   Fork

    Fork in the world of blockchain refers to the process of creating a unique network by using the same consensus mechanism or protocols as the previously existing network. Forks could contain the state of the original network or instantiate their own state. You can find two categories of forks such as hard fork and soft fork. The hard fork features permanent incompatibility with the existing network. The soft fork features compatibility with the data on the original chain. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary


    66 / 150   Gas

    Gas in the blockchain terminology refers to a measure of the computational difficulty needed for processing a smart contract function. Functions with additional complexity would require additional gas. Users could find gas as hardcoded values for each operational code, such as in the case of Ethereum. On the other hand, gas could also refer to subjective values that depend on miner’s preferences. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    67 / 150   Gas Price

    Gas price refers to the number of tokens charged as fee for every unit of gas consumed by function of smart contract. Gas prices can help a network in responding dynamically to fluctuations in bandwidth demand on the grounds of market forces.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    68 / 150   Genesis Block

    It is the initial data block that was computed first in the history of blockchain network.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    69 / 150   Gossip Protocol

    Gossip protocol refers to a process through which actors in a network can exchange information with other members easily. Upon receiving new information, an actor relays the information to all other actors. The cumulative connection of all actors in a network ensures that all of them receive the information eventually.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    70 / 150   Graphical User Interface

    The Graphical User Interface or GUI is basically an instrument for displaying information to users through personalized design of on-screen elements such as taskbars and windows.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    71 / 150   Gwei

    Gwei is the basic and specific denomination for ETH; it is also a unit for gas price.

    crypto blockchain glossary


    72 / 150   Halving

    Cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin run on a finite supply, thereby implying their characterization as a scarce digital commodity. The total amount of Bitcoin issued could never cross 21 million. So, the number of Bitcoins generated for every block is reduced by half every four years in a process known as halving.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    73 / 150   Hardware Wallet

    Hardware wallet refers to any physical device such as the popular Ledger Wallet, which can be connected to the web with a facility for interaction with online exchanges.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    74 / 150   Hash

    Hash is an important element in the description of blockchain infrastructures. It refers to the output of a cryptographic function for mapping inputs to particular outputs that seem arbitrary. Hashes are primarily useful for efficient data identification. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    75 / 150   Hash Collision

    Hash collision happens in the circumstances when two inputs are mapping to the same output hash. However, it is impossible to offer two sets of meaningful data with colliding hashes. Although users can construct hashes from data, they cannot reconstruct data from hashes.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    76 / 150   Hash Function

    Hash function refers to a cryptographic function that enables mapping of inputs to particular yet visibly random outputs.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    77 / 150   Hashgraph

    Hashgraph is a decentralized ledger that depends on a gossip protocol for communicating transactions alongside a tangle-style consensus approach. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    78 / 150   Hashrate

    Hashrate refers to the rate at which a specific machine is capable of addressing a particular hashing function. The Hashrate is generally similar to common CPU speed. Hashrate is calculated on the basis of number of times that a machine could perform specific functions per second. As a result, ASICs are capable of showcasing higher hashrate in comparison to processors with similar clock speed.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    79 / 150   Hexadecimal Notation

    Hexadecimal notation is basically the representation of raw data in base of 16 rather than base of two or base of 10.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    80 / 150   Hot Wallet

    The hot wallet in blockchain points out to wallets that are connected directly to the internet at all times, such as the ones held on centralized exchanges.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    81 / 150   Hybrid Consensus Model

    The hybrid consensus model focuses on combining the best functionalities from Proof of Stake (PoS) and Proof of Work (PoW) consensus mechanisms. Hybrid consensus model enables validation of blocks by miners as well as voters, thereby leading to balance in network governance.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    82 / 150   Hyperledger

    Hyperledger is one of the top enterprise favorites for leveraging the power of blockchain. Hyperledger features an assortment of tools offered by IBM and helps in creating enterprise-level consortium chains with hosting by The Linux Foundation. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary


    83 / 150   Immutability

    Immutability is the property of data for showcasing additional resistance to modifications. It is a key aspect of blockchain networks and ensures that data written on a blockchain ledger cannot be modified.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    84 / 150   Initial Coin Offering

    ICO or Initial Coin Offering, also known as Initial Token Offering, is similar to the public offering of stocks in the financial markets. It offers a way for tokenized businesses to obtain investment from the public. ICOs come under the regulation of the Securities and Exchange Commission or SEC. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    85 / 150   InterPlanetary File System (IPFS)

    IPFS basically refers to a system for decentralized file storage and referencing for the Ethereum blockchain. It is an open-source protocol for enabling the storage and sharing of hypermedia in a distributed manner. Most important of all, IPFS does not depend on a single point of failure.

    crypto blockchain glossary


    86 / 150   Java

    Java is the most popular programming language tailored for server-side applications.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    87 / 150   JavaScript

    JavaScript is the ideal programming language tailored for browsers and web pages on the grounds of its flexibility. It follows the ECMAScript and is also an interpreted language for developing back-end and front-end solutions.

    crypto blockchain glossary


    88 / 150   KYC (Know Your Customer)

    KYC is a procedure in which a business verifies the genuineness of the customers by verifying their background and identity.

    crypto blockchain glossary


    89 / 150   Liquid Democracy

    Liquid Democracy, also known as Delegative Democracy, is a system, generated by government in which votes can be proxied (delegated) to any other individual. This term was founded as a mechanism for Decentralized Autonomous Organizations where every participant can delegate their vote to another individual.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    90 / 150   Liquidity

    Liquidity refers to the availability of liquid assets to a market or company. An asset is associated with higher liquidity for easier conversion to cash. Difficulties in converting an asset into cash make the asset illiquid. The liquidity of an asset influences its market price and risk potential.

    crypto blockchain glossary


    91 / 150   Mainnet

    Mainnet is the largest blockchain network run by a specific protocol or the most valuable chain of a community. They exist in places of deriving real value and representation of truest intents of the core developers. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    92 / 150   Market Capitalization

    Market Caplitalization, also known as Market Cap, is the total value of a particular market, industry, company, or asset. For a company that is publicly traded, the market capitalization is the total market value (in dollar) of the outstanding shares of a company.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    93 / 150   Merkle Proof

    Merkle Proof basically refers to the process of passing through a Merkle tree from leaf to root. Along the way, you have to hash every level with the previous level for producing a unique hash for the tree’s structure.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    94 / 150   Merkle Root

    Merkle Root refers to the cryptographic has of all other hashes in the Merkle Tree. In the case of a blockchain, the Merkle Root refers to a hash of all the transaction hashes in the chain.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    95 / 150   Merkle Tree

    Merkle Tree is a data tree with leaves at the end of every branch labeled with an identifier or a cryptographic hash. All branches on a Merkle Tree are labeled with all leaves and sub-branches. The redundancy on a Merkle Tree ensures that any individual with the tree could provide reliable proof of completeness of the data. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    96 / 150   Miner

    Miner in the world of blockchain points out to an actor with the ability to create and submit new blocks to the chain. CPU miners generally use central processors for block production and validation. GPU miners are known for using their graphics processor to address block validation and production. Miners using ASIC for block validation and production are known as ASIC miners.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    97 / 150   Mining

    The process of developing a new block and submitting it to the blockchain is known as mining

    crypto blockchain glossary

    98 / 150   Mining Pool

    The mining pool refers to a group of miners working together for generating the next block on a blockchain before the others in the network.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    99 / 150   Multi Signature (MultiSig)

    Multi Signature is a crypto-asset wallet for which there is a requirement of multiple keys to access it. More than one (specified) individuals have to sign a transaction for approval, only then they would be able to access the wallet.

    crypto blockchain glossary


    100 / 150   Network

    The set of actors interconnected collectively for achieving a single purpose is referred to as a network.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    101 / 150   Node

    Any participant in the blockchain network connected to peers with the capability of validation and propagation of new blocks is referred to as a node. A full node generally features the complete state of the blockchain. On the other hand, a light node features adequate block data for validation of the chain, albeit without the complete state data related to every block.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    102 / 150   Non-Fungible Token (NFT)

    NFT is a token that doesn’t have any equal token i.e. considered to be a unique digital asset. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary


    103 / 150   Opcode

    Opcode is basically a machine-level instruction for processors, and they are generally very basic commands such as bit shifting, addition, and multiplication.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    104 / 150   Oracle

    The company Oracle creates enterprise-level software systems. On the other hand, as a service, oracles are services for connecting real-world data and blockchain applications.

    crypto blockchain glossary


    105 / 150   Peer-to-Peer (P2P)

    Peer to Peer or P2P refers to a model of interaction between actors involved in a transaction without any external intermediary. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    106 / 150   Private Blockchain

    A private blockchain is a closed network where authorized participants are controlled by a single entity. It limits the individuals who can participate in the consensus of the blockchain network. There is a verification process for the new participants to authorize them for participation. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    107 / 150   Private Currency

    A token or currency that is issued by a private firm or individual. Private currency has limitations to use within a network of that firm or individual who issued it.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    108 / 150   Private Key

    Private key is one of the significant components in the public/private key pair and is suitable for asymmetric encryption and decryption.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    109 / 150   Private Key Infrastructure

    PKI or Private Key Infrastructure refers to a collection of rules and policies for managing identification through public-key encryption associated with a network.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    110 / 150   Proof-of-Liquidity

    Proof of Liquidity is a cryptographic assertion method by third-party auditor for verifying that an actor holds a specific number of resources.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    111 / 150   Proof-of-Stake

    PoS refers to a consensus mechanism that ensures that the ability to produce a block must be proportional to the amount of native cryptocurrency held by the actor.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    112 / 150   Proof-of-Work

    PoW refers to a consensus mechanism that encourages actors to solve computationally difficult problems for developing the ability to produce the next block in a blockchain. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    113 / 150   Protocol

    Protocol refers to a set of rules defined for the exchange and transmission of data. In blockchain, protocol refers to the rules that define how the actions should be performed across a network. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    114 / 150   Public Blockchain

    A public blockchain is a globally open network, such that, anyone can participate in the transactions, in the execution of consensus protocol, and in the maintenance of shared ledger. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    115 / 150   Public Key

    A specific type of cryptographic equation or collection of parameters corresponding to a related private key is known as public key. Public key is helpful for decrypting a message encrypted symmetrically by leveraging the related private key.

    crypto blockchain glossary


    116 / 150   Relayer

    Relayer refers to a party that hosts an off-chain orderbook. Relayer assists traders to find out counter-parties and then exchange order between them in a cryptographic manner.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    117 / 150   Ring Signature

    Ring signature is a private-key focused cryptographic signature with an option for decryption or verification through multiple valid keys.

    crypto blockchain glossary


    118 / 150   Santoshi Nakamoto

    It’s the name that was used by the assumed individual/ individuals who developed bitcoin. Nakamoto published the white paper in 2008, describing about the project. He also invented the first blockchain database. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    119 / 150   Scalability

    Scalability refers to the ability of a blockchain project to handle the network traffic, capacity of application, and future growth.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    120 / 150   Secure Hash Algorithm

    Secure Hash Algorithm or SHA is a cryptographic hashing function tailored by the United States National Security Agency. You can find the specific implementation of the algorithm by its numeric suffix.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    121 / 150   Serialization

    It is process of converting a data structure into an encoding format that consists of the series/sequence of bytes.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    122 / 150   Shard

    A small portion of the entire network is known as Shard, whereas Sharding is the process of splitting the complete network into many small portions, shards. Each shard has an independent state i.e. unique smart contract and account balance. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    123 / 150   Slashing Condition

    A condition that results in the smashing of the validator’s deposit on trigger.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    124 / 150   Smart Contract

    Smart contract in blockchain refers to the code that you can execute in the environment of a virtual machine. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    125 / 150   Solidity

    Solidity is a popular smart contract programming language specifically tailored for the Ethereum Virtual Machine.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    126 / 150   Stablecoin

    Stablecoin is the cryptocurrency that minimizes the volatility of the stablecoin price, with respect to an asset or assets. Stablecoin is measured with respect to a known amount of an asset, so it remains stable. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    127 / 150   State Machine

    State machine basically points out to a model of computation, and at any specific instance, a state machine could feature one out of a finite set of states.

    crypto blockchain glossary


    128 / 150   Testnet

    An alternative to blockchain developer who tests the applications in a somewhat real (near-live) environment.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    129 / 150   Testnet Koven

    It refers to an Ethereum Testnet that supports parity clients and uses Proof of Authority consensus.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    130 / 150   Testnet Rinkeby

    It refers to an Ethereum Testnet that supports geth clients and uses Proof of Authority consensus.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    131 / 150   Testnet Ropsten

    It refers to an Ethereum Testnet that supports both the geth and parity clients and uses Proof of Authority consensus.It is mostly similar to mainnet.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    132 / 150   Token

    A token is the digital representation of an asset built over existing blockchain. They are designed for uniqueness, instant transferability, liquidity, digital scarcity, and security.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    133 / 150   Tokenization

    Tokenization is a process that allows the translation of business goods, strategies, or services into discrete units that are tradable and can be recorded on a blockchain. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    134 / 150   Total Complete

    It is a functional, less universal programming language that lacks non-deterministic functions, but have more characteristics.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    135 / 150   Transaction

    An input/ addition into a blockchain that can make some changes in the existing blockchain data is known as a transaction. READ MORE

    crypto blockchain glossary

    136 / 150   Transaction Block

    Transaction block refers to a collection of transactions on the blockchain that can be hashed and submitted to the blockchain.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    137 / 150   Transaction Fee

    The minimal fee imposed on certain transactions delivered through a blockchain network is known as the transaction fee.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    138 / 150   Transaction Pool

    Transaction pool is a pool or list of transactions, propagating through a common network, but haven’t added in a block.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    139 / 150   Turing Complete

    It refers to the capability of a programming language to simulate a Turing machine.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    140 / 150   Turing Machine

    A machine that can perform any task or algorithm, that can be performed by a computer.

    crypto blockchain glossary


    141 / 150   Unspent Transaction Output

    UTXOs enabled blockchains to have each transaction referencing the output of previous transactions and consuming all the tokens of the output. UTXO is important for reinforcing the immutability of blockchain.

    crypto blockchain glossary


    142 / 150   Validator

    The validator in a blockchain ecosystem basically refers to a participant in Proof of Stake consensus algorithm. Validators have to submit security deposits for inclusion in the validator set.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    143 / 150   Virtual Machine

    Virtual Machine refers to an operating system that runs on another operating system. Virtual Machines are important for allocating the processing strength of large servers to the simpler / smaller applications.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    144 / 150   Vyper

    Vyper is a programming language, that is used for building smart contracts. It can also be complied for Ethereum.

    crypto blockchain glossary


    145 / 150   Wallet

    Wallet is a software, containing private keys, that interact with the PKI (Private Key Infrastructure).

    crypto blockchain glossary

    146 / 150   Wallet (Multi signature)

    A multi signature wallet needs more than one private key signature for generating a valid transaction. Multi signature wallet can be shared by multiple actors while it’s not necessary that they all will participate in every transaction.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    147 / 150   Web Assembly (WASM)

    WASM is a binary instruction format that is generated for a virtual machine, created to be implemented by all web browsers. Web Assembly enables developers to add all the functionalities that can not be added by the JavaScript or HTML code.

    crypto blockchain glossary


    148 / 150   Zeppelin

    Zeppelin is a reference to a community of smart contract developers. It is also sometimes known as "Open Zeppelin".

    crypto blockchain glossary

    149 / 150   Zero-Knowledge Proof

    Zero-Knowledge Proof is a cryptographic mechanism meant for helping users in representing assertions where output value can be determined easily without any input information.

    crypto blockchain glossary

    150 / 150   zk-SNARK

    zk-SNARK (zero-knowledge succinct non-interactive argument of knowledge) is a cryptographic proof system that is used to verify a transaction without disclosing the transaction data, and without connecting with the user who initiated that transaction.

    crypto blockchain glossary